On the Antiquity of Cancer: Evidence for Metastatic Carcinoma in a Young Man from Ancient Nubia (c. 1200BC)
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{"title"=>"On the antiquity of cancer: Evidence for metastatic carcinoma in a young man from ancient Nubia (c. 1200bc)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michaela", "last_name"=>"Binder", "scopus_author_id"=>"56088579900"}, {"first_name"=>"Charlotte", "last_name"=>"Roberts", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404402271"}, {"first_name"=>"Neal", "last_name"=>"Spencer", "scopus_author_id"=>"56115113700"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Antoine", "scopus_author_id"=>"36812150200"}, {"first_name"=>"Caroline", "last_name"=>"Cartwright", "scopus_author_id"=>"55406436300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84898655794", "pmid"=>"24637948", "pui"=>"372838532", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84898655794", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0090924", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"2da0074f-9074-3cfb-9c72-b36b90887742", "abstract"=>"Cancer, one of the world's leading causes of death today, remains almost absent relative to other pathological conditions, in the archaeological record, giving rise to the conclusion that the disease is mainly a product of modern living and increased longevity. This paper presents a male, young-adult individual from the archaeological site of Amara West in northern Sudan (c. 1200 BC) displaying multiple, mainly osteolytic, lesions on the vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicles, scapulae, pelvis, and humeral and femoral heads. Following radiographic, microscopic and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging of the lesions, and a consideration of differential diagnoses, a diagnosis of metastatic carcinoma secondary to an unknown soft tissue cancer is suggested. This represents the earliest complete example in the world of a human who suffered metastatic cancer to date. The study further draws its strength from modern analytical techniques applied to differential diagnoses and the fact that it is firmly rooted within a well-documented archaeological and historical context, thus providing new insights into the history and antiquity of the disease as well as its underlying causes and progression.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/antiquity-cancer-evidence-metastatic-carcinoma-young-man-ancient-nubia-c-1200bc", "reader_count"=>79, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Arts and Humanities"=>5, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>14}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "South Africa"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1423309"], "description"=>"<p>Detail of the pathological changes in the 7<sup>th</sup> thoracic vertebra. Rectangle indicates area of new bone infill of the spongiosa. Close-up of new bone formation indicated by arrows is shown in the insert; arrows indicate new bone formation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "Cancers and neoplasms", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "lesion", "vertebral", "thoracic"], "article_id"=>964353, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michaela Binder", "Charlotte Roberts", "Neal Spencer", "Daniel Antoine", "Caroline Cartwright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Destructive_lesion_in_vertebral_body_of_the_7_th_thoracic_vertebrae_/964353", "title"=>"Destructive lesion in vertebral body of the 7<sup>th</sup> thoracic vertebrae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-17 03:30:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1423310"], "description"=>"<p>A) shows a close-up of bone formation at 35x magnification located within the lytic focus, B) SEM image of the lytic focus C) shows the complete spinous process with the location of the lytic focus highlighted in the rectangle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "Cancers and neoplasms", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "lesion", "spinous", "thoracic"], "article_id"=>964354, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michaela Binder", "Charlotte Roberts", "Neal Spencer", "Daniel Antoine", "Caroline Cartwright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lytic_lesion_in_the_spinous_process_of_the_5_th_thoracic_vertebra_/964354", "title"=>"Lytic lesion in the spinous process of the 5<sup>th</sup> thoracic vertebra.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-17 03:30:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1423311"], "description"=>"<p>The close-up shows a focus of new bone formation indicated by arrows in a lytic lesion in the iliac crest (40x magnification).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "Cancers and neoplasms", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "iliac"], "article_id"=>964355, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michaela Binder", "Charlotte Roberts", "Neal Spencer", "Daniel Antoine", "Caroline Cartwright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detail_of_new_bone_formation_in_the_iliac_crest_/964355", "title"=>"Detail of new bone formation in the iliac crest.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-17 03:30:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1423312"], "description"=>"<p>Photo- and radiograph of lytic lesions in the right femoral head (arrows indicate areas of pathological lesions).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "Cancers and neoplasms", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "femoral"], "article_id"=>964356, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michaela Binder", "Charlotte Roberts", "Neal Spencer", "Daniel Antoine", "Caroline Cartwright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathological_changes_in_the_right_femoral_head_/964356", "title"=>"Pathological changes in the right femoral head.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-17 03:30:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1423313"], "description"=>"<p>Tibia of a skeleton from Amara West showing extensive damage caused by dermestid beetles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "Cancers and neoplasms", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "caused"], "article_id"=>964357, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michaela Binder", "Charlotte Roberts", "Neal Spencer", "Daniel Antoine", "Caroline Cartwright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Post_mortem_damage_caused_by_insects_/964357", "title"=>"Post-mortem damage caused by insects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-17 03:30:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1423317"], "description"=>"<p>A) shows the margin of a defect caused by post-mortem damage. B) shows pathological changes on the margin of a lytic lesion in the cortical surface (bar on the bottom of each image indicates 100 µm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "Cancers and neoplasms", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "sem-images", "taphonomic", "pathological"], "article_id"=>964361, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michaela Binder", "Charlotte Roberts", "Neal Spencer", "Daniel Antoine", "Caroline Cartwright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_SEM_images_of_taphonomic_and_pathological_lesions_/964361", "title"=>"Comparison of SEM-images of taphonomic and pathological lesions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-17 03:30:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1423286"], "description"=>"<p>Map of modern Sudan showing the location of the archaeological site (Map drawn by M. Binder, source: ESRI).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "Cancers and neoplasms", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "amara"], "article_id"=>964337, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michaela Binder", "Charlotte Roberts", "Neal Spencer", "Daniel Antoine", "Caroline Cartwright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_Amara_West_/964337", "title"=>"Location of Amara West.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-17 03:30:26"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1423307"], "description"=>"<p>Photo- and radiograph of the left first rib (superior surface. Arrows indicate location of the lesions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "oncology", "Basic cancer research", "Cancers and neoplasms", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "lesions"], "article_id"=>964351, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Michaela Binder", "Charlotte Roberts", "Neal Spencer", "Daniel Antoine", "Caroline Cartwright"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090924.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lytic_lesions_in_the_first_rib_/964351", "title"=>"Lytic lesions in the first rib.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-17 03:30:26"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Developmental biology", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Oncology", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Archaeology", "average_usage"=>[804, 1556, 1804]}]}
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