Assessing the Impact of Water Filters and Improved Cook Stoves on Drinking Water Quality and Household Air Pollution: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Rwanda
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{"title"=>"Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: A randomised controlled trial in Rwanda", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ghislaine", "last_name"=>"Rosa", "scopus_author_id"=>"35604450200"}, {"first_name"=>"Fiona", "last_name"=>"Majorin", "scopus_author_id"=>"55831096200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sophie", "last_name"=>"Boisson", "scopus_author_id"=>"16030238900"}, {"first_name"=>"Christina", "last_name"=>"Barstow", "scopus_author_id"=>"54894882300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55723912000"}, {"first_name"=>"Miles", "last_name"=>"Kirby", "scopus_author_id"=>"56096864600"}, {"first_name"=>"Fidele", "last_name"=>"Ngabo", "scopus_author_id"=>"36969958400"}, {"first_name"=>"Evan", "last_name"=>"Thomas", "scopus_author_id"=>"55806235900"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Clasen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701896965"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372749853", "sgr"=>"84897518281", "pmid"=>"24614750", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897518281", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0091011", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"6f25c88c-f182-35b7-ba7d-3d789c7ad23f", "abstract"=>"UNLABELLED: Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.\\n\\nTRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/assessing-impact-water-filters-improved-cook-stoves-drinking-water-quality-household-air-pollution-r-1", "reader_count"=>75, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>19, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>19, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>6, "Engineering"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>20, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>8, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>8}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>20}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>9}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>6}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413265"], "description"=>"1<p>Based on households that completed the visits and allowed enumerators to observe the container, 1356/1393 = 97.3%.</p>2<p>Data only available from mid follow-up 2 onwards (1040/1393 = 74.7%).</p>3<p>Among those households cooking only on the intervention stove.</p>4<p>Excludes those households cooking at time of home visit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Environmental chemistry", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Water quality", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious disease control", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Environmental health"], "article_id"=>956443, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ghislaine Rosa", "Fiona Majorin", "Sophie Boisson", "Christina Barstow", "Michael Johnson", "Miles Kirby", "Fidele Ngabo", "Evan Thomas", "Thomas Clasen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Filter_and_stove_use_among_intervention_households_Evaluator_s_survey_/956443", "title"=>"Filter and stove use among intervention households: Evaluator's survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-10 02:48:36"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413267"], "description"=>"1<p>Observation not allowed in one household.</p>2<p>Of those households that allowed the observation (n = 282, 99.3%).</p>3<p>Among those households cooking only on the intervention stove.</p>4<p>Excludes those households cooking at time of home visit.</p>5<p>Among those households identifying intervention stove as main cooking stove.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Environmental chemistry", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Water quality", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious disease control", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Environmental health"], "article_id"=>956445, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ghislaine Rosa", "Fiona Majorin", "Sophie Boisson", "Christina Barstow", "Michael Johnson", "Miles Kirby", "Fidele Ngabo", "Evan Thomas", "Thomas Clasen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Filter_and_stove_use_among_intervention_households_Implementer_s_survey_/956445", "title"=>"Filter and stove use among intervention households: Implementer's survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-10 02:48:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413263"], "description"=>"<p>CONSORT diagram showing the flow of participants through the trial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Environmental chemistry", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Water quality", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious disease control", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Environmental health", "diagram"], "article_id"=>956441, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ghislaine Rosa", "Fiona Majorin", "Sophie Boisson", "Christina Barstow", "Michael Johnson", "Miles Kirby", "Fidele Ngabo", "Evan Thomas", "Thomas Clasen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CONSORT_diagram_showing_the_flow_of_participants_through_the_trial_/956441", "title"=>"CONSORT diagram showing the flow of participants through the trial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-10 02:48:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413274", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413275", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413276", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413277", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413278"], "description"=>"<div><p></p><p>Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM<sub>2.5</sub> monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 <i>vs</i>. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, <i>p</i><0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations in the cooking area (<i>p</i> = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.</p><p>Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov; <a href=\"http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search\" target=\"_blank\">NCT01882777</a>; <a href=\"http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search\" target=\"_blank\">http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search</a></p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Environmental chemistry", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Water quality", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious disease control", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Environmental health", "filters", "stoves", "randomised", "controlled"], "article_id"=>956452, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ghislaine Rosa", "Fiona Majorin", "Sophie Boisson", "Christina Barstow", "Michael Johnson", "Miles Kirby", "Fidele Ngabo", "Evan Thomas", "Thomas Clasen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assessing_the_Impact_of_Water_Filters_and_Improved_Cook_Stoves_on_Drinking_Water_Quality_and_Household_Air_Pollution_A_Randomised_Controlled_Trial_in_Rwanda_/956452", "title"=>"Assessing the Impact of Water Filters and Improved Cook Stoves on Drinking Water Quality and Household Air Pollution: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Rwanda", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-03-10 02:48:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1413269"], "description"=>"<p>Summary statistics for 24-h PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations in the reported main cooking area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Bacterial pathogens", "Environmental chemistry", "atmospheric chemistry", "Air quality", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Water quality", "Global health", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious disease control", "Public health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Environmental health", "24-h", "concentrations"], "article_id"=>956447, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ghislaine Rosa", "Fiona Majorin", "Sophie Boisson", "Christina Barstow", "Michael Johnson", "Miles Kirby", "Fidele Ngabo", "Evan Thomas", "Thomas Clasen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091011.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_for_24_h_PM_2_5_concentrations_in_the_reported_main_cooking_area_/956447", "title"=>"Summary statistics for 24-h PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations in the reported main cooking area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-10 02:48:36"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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