Where Wolves Kill Moose: The Influence of Prey Life History Dynamics on the Landscape Ecology of Predation
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{"title"=>"Where wolves kill moose: The influence of prey life history dynamics on the landscape ecology of predation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert A.", "last_name"=>"Montgomery", "scopus_author_id"=>"34875583700"}, {"first_name"=>"John A.", "last_name"=>"Vucetich", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603837649"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary J.", "last_name"=>"Roloff", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603933911"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph K.", "last_name"=>"Bump", "scopus_author_id"=>"17344906800"}, {"first_name"=>"Rolf O.", "last_name"=>"Peterson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403617447"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372799623", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0091414", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897991297", "pmid"=>"24622241", "sgr"=>"84897991297"}, "id"=>"dc404441-2820-30cd-9fd7-4edb973c2092", "abstract"=>"The landscape ecology of predation is well studied and known to be influenced by habitat heterogeneity. Little attention has been given to how the influence of habitat heterogeneity on the landscape ecology of predation might be modulated by life history dynamics of prey in mammalian systems. We demonstrate how life history dynamics of moose (Alces alces) contribute to landscape patterns in predation by wolves (Canis lupus) in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA. We use pattern analysis and kernel density estimates of moose kill sites to demonstrate that moose in senescent condition and moose in prime condition tend to be wolf-killed in different regions of Isle Royale in winter. Predation on senescent moose was clustered in one kill zone in the northeast portion of the island, whereas predation on prime moose was clustered in 13 separate kill zones distributed throughout the full extent of the island. Moreover, the probability of kill occurrence for senescent moose, in comparison to prime moose, increased in high elevation habitat with patches of dense coniferous trees. These differences can be attributed, at least in part, to senescent moose being more vulnerable to predation and making different risk-sensitive habitat decisions than prime moose. Landscape patterns emerging from prey life history dynamics and habitat heterogeneity have been observed in the predation ecology of fish and insects, but this is the first mammalian system for which such observations have been made.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/wolves-kill-moose-influence-prey-life-history-dynamics-landscape-ecology-predation", "reader_count"=>61, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>16, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>34}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>16}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "France"=>1, "Kenya"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1416954"], "description"=>"<p>Expected L(t) values are represented by the horizontal line at 0, 99% confidence intervals are depicted with the hatched lines, and significant spatial clustering of carcass locations at the α = 0.01 level is represented by the grey shading.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Ecosystem modeling", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "Animal management", "Animal behavior", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "circles", "locations", "moose", "senescent", "carcasses", "isle", "royale"], "article_id"=>959480, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Robert A. Montgomery", "John A. Vucetich", "Gary J. Roloff", "Joseph K. Bump", "Rolf O. Peterson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091414.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_observed_values_plotted_with_black_circles_and_black_line_in_relation_to_distance_km_between_locations_of_a_prime_moose_and_b_senescent_moose_carcasses_in_Isle_Royale_National_Park_Lake_Superior_USA_2000_2008_/959480", "title"=>"The observed values (plotted with black circles and black line) in relation to distance (km) between locations of a) prime moose and b) senescent moose carcasses in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA, 2000–2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-12 03:20:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1416957"], "description"=>"<p>These distributions were documented each year via aerial surveys (e.g., Vucetich and Peterson <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091414#pone.0091414-Vucetich3\" target=\"_blank\">[43]</a>). Each panel show the means population density, averaged across each year of the study period, 2000–2008.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Ecosystem modeling", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "Animal management", "Animal behavior", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "spatial", "moose", "wolves", "isle", "royale"], "article_id"=>959483, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Robert A. Montgomery", "John A. Vucetich", "Gary J. Roloff", "Joseph K. Bump", "Rolf O. Peterson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091414.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>54, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_spatial_distribution_for_a_moose_and_b_wolves_in_Isle_Royale_National_Park_Lake_Superior_USA_/959483", "title"=>"The spatial distribution for a) moose and b) wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-12 03:20:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1416958"], "description"=>"<div><p>The landscape ecology of predation is well studied and known to be influenced by habitat heterogeneity. Little attention has been given to how the influence of habitat heterogeneity on the landscape ecology of predation might be modulated by life history dynamics of prey in mammalian systems. We demonstrate how life history dynamics of moose (<i>Alces alces</i>) contribute to landscape patterns in predation by wolves (<i>Canis lupus</i>) in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA. We use pattern analysis and kernel density estimates of moose kill sites to demonstrate that moose in senescent condition and moose in prime condition tend to be wolf-killed in different regions of Isle Royale in winter. Predation on senescent moose was clustered in one kill zone in the northeast portion of the island, whereas predation on prime moose was clustered in 13 separate kill zones distributed throughout the full extent of the island. Moreover, the probability of kill occurrence for senescent moose, in comparison to prime moose, increased in high elevation habitat with patches of dense coniferous trees. These differences can be attributed, at least in part, to senescent moose being more vulnerable to predation and making different risk-sensitive habitat decisions than prime moose. Landscape patterns emerging from prey life history dynamics and habitat heterogeneity have been observed in the predation ecology of fish and insects, but this is the first mammalian system for which such observations have been made.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Ecosystem modeling", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "Animal management", "Animal behavior", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "wolves", "prey"], "article_id"=>959484, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Robert A. Montgomery", "John A. Vucetich", "Gary J. Roloff", "Joseph K. Bump", "Rolf O. Peterson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091414", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Where_Wolves_Kill_Moose_The_Influence_of_Prey_Life_History_Dynamics_on_the_Landscape_Ecology_of_Predation_/959484", "title"=>"Where Wolves Kill Moose: The Influence of Prey Life History Dynamics on the Landscape Ecology of Predation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-12 03:20:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1416955"], "description"=>"<p>The response variable for this model was the percentile of the kernel density estimate (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091414#pone-0091414-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>) at each site where a moose was wolf-killed which depicts the probability of kill occurrence. Distance to shore refers to the Lake Superior shoreline, and distance to lake refers to inland lakes within Isle Royale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Ecosystem modeling", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "Animal management", "Animal behavior", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "regression", "coefficients", "bars", "linear", "describing", "senescent", "moose", "sites", "isle", "royale"], "article_id"=>959481, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Robert A. Montgomery", "John A. Vucetich", "Gary J. Roloff", "Joseph K. Bump", "Rolf O. Peterson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091414.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>50, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standardized_regression_coefficients_with_standard_error_bars_from_the_multiple_linear_regression_model_describing_habitat_features_at_prime_and_senescent_moose_kill_sites_in_Isle_Royale_National_Park_Lake_Superior_USA_2000_8211_2008_/959481", "title"=>"Standardized regression coefficients with standard error bars from the multiple linear regression model describing habitat features at prime and senescent moose kill sites in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA, 2000–2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-12 03:20:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1416953"], "description"=>"<p>Carcass locations and kill zones, resulting from the core estimation of the kernel density estimates, for prime and senescent moose killed by wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA, 2000–2008.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "ecosystems", "ecosystem functioning", "Ecosystem modeling", "Behavioral ecology", "Conservation science", "Population biology", "Population Dynamics", "Predator-prey dynamics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "Animal management", "Animal behavior", "Animal types", "Large animals", "wildlife", "locations", "estimation", "kernel", "senescent", "moose", "killed", "wolves", "isle", "royale"], "article_id"=>959479, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Robert A. Montgomery", "John A. Vucetich", "Gary J. Roloff", "Joseph K. Bump", "Rolf O. Peterson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091414.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>140, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carcass_locations_and_kill_zones_resulting_from_the_core_estimation_of_the_kernel_density_estimates_for_prime_and_senescent_moose_killed_by_wolves_in_Isle_Royale_National_Park_Lake_Superior_USA_2000_8211_2008_/959479", "title"=>"Carcass locations and kill zones, resulting from the core estimation of the kernel density estimates, for prime and senescent moose killed by wolves in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA, 2000–2008.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-12 03:20:39"}

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