Boric Acid Inhibits Germination and Colonization of Saprolegnia Spores In Vitro and In Vivo
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{"title"=>"Boric acid inhibits germination and colonization of Saprolegnia spores in vitro and in vivo", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Shimaa E.", "last_name"=>"Ali", "scopus_author_id"=>"55929516100"}, {"first_name"=>"Even", "last_name"=>"Thoen", "scopus_author_id"=>"15027316800"}, {"first_name"=>"Øystein", "last_name"=>"Evensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004264235"}, {"first_name"=>"Ida", "last_name"=>"Skaar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603258691"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24699283", "sgr"=>"84899068834", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0091878", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899068834", "pui"=>"372921869", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"8b86d35e-e69b-3bea-a5e1-4b347ace05b8", "abstract"=>"Saprolegnia infections cause severe economic losses among freshwater fish and their eggs. The banning of malachite green increased the demand for finding effective alternative treatments to control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the ability of boric acid to control saprolegniosis in salmon eggs and yolk sac fry. Under in vitro conditions, boric acid was able to decrease Saprolegnia spore activity and mycelial growth in all tested concentrations above 0.2 g/L, while complete inhibition of germination and growth was observed at a concentration of 0.8 g/L. In in vivo experiments using Atlantic salmon eyed eggs, saprolegniosis was controlled by boric acid at concentrations ranging from 0.2-1.4 g/L during continuous exposure, and at 1.0-4.0 g/L during intermittent exposure. The same effect was observed on salmon yolk sac fry exposed continuously to 0.5 g/L boric acid during the natural outbreak of saprolegniosis. During the experiments no negative impact with regard to hatchability and viability was observed in either eggs or fry, which indicate safety of use at all tested concentrations. The high hatchability and survival rates recorded following the in vivo testing suggest that boric acid is a candidate for prophylaxis and control of saprolegniosis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/boric-acid-inhibits-germination-colonization-saprolegnia-spores-vitro-vivo", "reader_count"=>14, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448226"], "description"=>"<p>Grade 0: no germination, no growing mycelia on the sesame seeds.</p><p>Grade 1: germinating spores, no growing mycelia on the sesame seeds.</p><p>Grade 2: germinating spores, very few growing mycelia on the sesame seeds.</p><p>Grade 3: germinating spores, profuse growing mycelia on the sesame seeds.</p><p>* Average of 3 replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric", "germination", "colonization"], "article_id"=>985760, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_boric_acid_on_the_germination_and_colonization_of_Saprolegnia_spores_/985760", "title"=>"Effect of boric acid on the germination and colonization of <i>Saprolegnia</i> spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448227"], "description"=>"<p>Grade 0: no germination, no growing mycelia on the sesame seeds.</p><p>Grade 1: germinating spores, no growing mycelia on the sesame seeds.</p><p>Grade 2: germinating spores, very few growing mycelia on the sesame seeds.</p><p>Grade 3: germinating spores, profuse growing mycelia on the sesame seeds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "treated", "spores", "24", "boric"], "article_id"=>985761, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Viability_of_treated_Saprolegnia_spores_24_h_following_removal_of_boric_acid_/985761", "title"=>"Viability of treated <i>Saprolegnia</i> spores 24 h following removal of boric acid.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448228"], "description"=>"<p>*Based on 3 replicate colonies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric", "concentrations", "radial"], "article_id"=>985762, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_different_boric_acid_concentrations_on_the_radial_growth_rate_of_two_Saprolegnia_sp_S_parasitica_and_S_diclina_/985762", "title"=>"Effect of different boric acid concentrations on the radial growth rate of two <i>Saprolegnia</i> sp. (<i>S. parasitica</i> and <i>S. diclina</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448214"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of boric acid on the germination and colonization of <i>Saprolegnia</i> spores following 48 hours incubation. (<b>a1 and a2</b>) Grade 3: Profuse <i>Saprolegnia</i> hyphal growth on sesame seeds in the non- treated control group (water). (<b>b1 and b2</b>) Grade 3: germinating spores with mycelial growth on the sesame seeds (boric acid <0.2 g/L). (<b>c1 and c2</b>) Grade 2: reduced germination rate and minimal mycelial growth on the sesame seeds (boric acid 0.2–0.4 g/L). (<b>d1 and d2</b>) Grade 1: germinating spores without growing mycelia on the sesame seeds (boric acid 0.5–0.7 g/L). (<b>e1 and e2</b>) Grade 0: no germinating spores, no growing mycelia on the sesame seeds (boric acid ≥0.8 g/L). (<b>f1 and f2</b>) Grade 0: positive control group (bronopol), no spore germination with absence of the growing mycelia on sesame seeds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric", "germination", "colonization"], "article_id"=>985748, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>52, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_vitro_effect_of_boric_acid_on_the_germination_and_colonization_of_Saprolegnia_spores_/985748", "title"=>"<i>In vitro</i> effect of boric acid on the germination and colonization of <i>Saprolegnia</i> spores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448215"], "description"=>"<p>The mean number of germinating <i>Saprolegnia</i> cysts counted at 200× magnification 6 h following incubation with different boric acid concentrations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric", "cyst"], "article_id"=>985749, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_boric_acid_on_Saprolegnia_cyst_germination_/985749", "title"=>"Effect of boric acid on <i>Saprolegnia</i> cyst germination.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448216"], "description"=>"<p>The mean radial growth rate of two <i>Saprolegnia</i> sp. following 72 h incubation on glucose yeast agar mixed with different boric acid concentrations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric", "radial"], "article_id"=>985750, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_boric_acid_on_Saprolegnia_radial_growth_rate_/985750", "title"=>"Effect of boric acid on <i>Saprolegnia</i> radial growth rate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448217"], "description"=>"<p>The mean number of developed sporangia of two <i>Saprolegnia</i> sp. counted at 200× magnification following incubation with different boric acid concentrations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric"], "article_id"=>985751, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_boric_acid_on_the_development_and_formation_of_Saprolegnia_sporangia_/985751", "title"=>"Effect of boric acid on the development and formation of <i>Saprolegnia</i> sporangia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448218"], "description"=>"<p><i>Saprolegnia</i> zoosporangia in the non-treated control before (<b>a1</b>) and after (<b>a2</b>) spore release. <i>Saprolegnia</i> zoosporangia before (<b>b1</b>) and after 24 hours exposure to boric acid treatment (<b>b2</b>). Notice the degenerative changes within the zoosporangia and absence of spore production and release (b2; arrow).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric"], "article_id"=>985752, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_vitro_effect_of_boric_acid_on_the_development_of_Saprolegnia_zoosporangia_/985752", "title"=>"<i>In vitro</i> effect of boric acid on the development of <i>Saprolegnia</i> zoosporangia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448220"], "description"=>"<p>Fluorescence microscopy showing the viability of boric acid treated <i>Saprolegnia</i> spores and zoosporangia with SYTO 9 stain. <b>a1</b>) Colonization is seen on control seed. <b>a2</b>) Normal zoosporangium sporulating. <b>b1</b>) Non-colonized seed during treatment. <b>b2</b>) Effect on zoosporangium during treatment. <b>c1</b> and <b>c2</b>) Spores and zoosporangium were treated for 24 h with BA and left in sterilized aquarium water (SAW) for another 24 h after treatment was terminated. Germlings can be seen surrounding the seeds in c1. <b>c2</b>) shows a close-up of zoosporangium treated as in c1. <b>d1</b> and <b>d2</b>) Spores and zoosporangium were treated for 96 h in BA and then left in SAW for 24 h after treatment was terminated. There is no colonization on seeds after 96 h BA treatment (<b>d1</b>) and the zoosporangium (<b>d2</b>) appears with condensed staining and a thin wall.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "treated", "spores", "zoosporangia", "post-treatment"], "article_id"=>985754, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Viability_of_treated_Saprolegnia_spores_and_zoosporangia_during_treatment_and_post_treatment_removal_/985754", "title"=>"Viability of treated <i>Saprolegnia</i> spores and zoosporangia during treatment and post-treatment removal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448221"], "description"=>"<p>Microscopical examination of infected dead eggs used as a source of infection after the termination of the continuous exposure experiment. Mature <i>Saprolegnia</i> zoosporangium (<b>a</b>) in the non-treated control group compared to treated one exposed continuously to boric acid treatment (0.6 g/L) (<b>b</b>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric", "eggs"], "article_id"=>985755, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_continuous_boric_acid_treatment_on_salmon_eggs_used_as_infection_source_/985755", "title"=>"Effect of continuous boric acid treatment on salmon eggs used as infection source.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448222"], "description"=>"<p>Mortality and hatching rates in boric acid treated groups and the non-treated control (0.0 g/L) at the end of the first experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric"], "article_id"=>985756, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Continuous_exposure_to_boric_acid_/985756", "title"=>"Continuous exposure to boric acid.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448223"], "description"=>"<p>Mortality and hatching rates by the end of the experiment in boric acid treated groups and non-treated control (0.0 g/L).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "boric"], "article_id"=>985757, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intermittent_exposure_to_boric_acid_/985757", "title"=>"Intermittent exposure to boric acid.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448224"], "description"=>"<p>Mortality and hatching rates in egg groups intermittently exposed to boric acid (third experiment) compared to non-treated control (0.0 g/L).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology"], "article_id"=>985758, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protection_against_infection_of_dead_eggs_/985758", "title"=>"Protection against infection of dead eggs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1448225"], "description"=>"<p>Survival curve of treated salmonid yolk sac fry and control during the outbreak of saprolegniosis. Note the significant reduction in mortality among treated group (p<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "aquaculture", "Fish farming", "developmental biology", "Microbial growth and development", "Marine biology", "Fisheries science", "microbiology", "Medical microbiology", "Microbial pathogens", "Microbial control", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Aquatic animals", "Veterinary diseases", "Veterinary mycology", "Veterinary microbiology", "yolk", "sac"], "article_id"=>985759, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Shimaa E. Ali", "Even Thoen", "Øystein Evensen", "Ida Skaar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091878.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Protection_against_natural_infection_in_yolk_sac_fry_/985759", "title"=>"Protection against natural infection in yolk sac fry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-03 02:53:40"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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