Embryo Development inside Female Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale) Prior to Egg Laying
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{"title"=>"Embryo development inside female salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale) rrior to egg laying", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Noah D.", "last_name"=>"Charney"}, {"first_name"=>"John J.", "last_name"=>"Castorino"}, {"first_name"=>"Megan J.", "last_name"=>"Dobro"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah L.", "last_name"=>"Steely"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PloS one", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24651275", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0091919", "issn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"736499c7-6ad6-37c9-9e30-dbecedda8f94", "abstract"=>"The length of embryo retention prior to oviposition is a critical evolutionary trait. In all oviparous salamanders, which include the vast majority of species in the order, fertilization is thought to occur at the time of egg laying. Embryos then enter the first cleavage stage several hours after being deposited. This pattern holds for previously studied individuals in the Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale complex. Here, we document an instance in which a female Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale was carrying embryos internally that had already reached stage 10 of development. Development likely began several days prior to the start of migration to the breeding pond. This is the first such record for any egg-laying salamander, and suggests a degree of plasticity in the timing of fertilization and development not previously recognized. Further work is needed to ascertain the prevalence, mechanics, and evolutionary significance of this phenomenon.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/embryo-development-inside-female-salamander-ambystoma-jeffersonianumlaterale-rrior-egg-laying", "reader_count"=>15, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1429702"], "description"=>"<p>A) Typical <i>Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale</i> eggs in cleavage stage 4 laid in a pond in western Massachusetts. B) A portion of a clutch extracted from a road-killed unisexual <i>Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale</i>. C) Fluorescence image of a DAPI-stained embryo from the clutch of the road-killed individual in approximately development stage 10. The blue dots are cell nuclei, the pink dots are surface reflections of the light source. D) A sectioned embryo showing a fluid-filled center with nuclei distributed around the periphery. E) A close up of nuclei in an embryo.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Reproductive system", "developmental biology", "embryology", "Evolutionary developmental biology", "fertilization", "morphogenesis", "Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Animal evolution", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Zoology", "Reptile biology"], "article_id"=>969563, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Noah D. Charney", "John J. Castorino", "Megan J. Dobro", "Sarah L. Steely"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091919.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ambystoma_jeffersonianum_laterale_embryos_/969563", "title"=>"<i>Ambystoma jeffersonianum-laterale</i> embryos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-20 04:47:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1429698"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers represent estimates of the total number of species in each group, the percent of known species thought to have internal fertilization, and the number of species thought to be either viviparous or ovoviviparous. In groups with no number in the “viviparous or ovoviviparous” column, all species are oviparous. The * denotes a single oviparous species with unconfirmed accounts of it giving birth to free swimming larvae under abnormal laboratory conditions <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091919#pone.0091919-Briegleb1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091919#pone.0091919-Greven1\" target=\"_blank\">[13]</a>. Salamander families are shown in black, and the current study focuses on species in the Ambystomatidae family. Branch lengths are not meaningful <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091919#pone.0091919-Sever1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091919#pone.0091919-Bruce1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091919#pone.0091919-Larson1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0091919#pone.0091919-Frost1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Reproductive system", "developmental biology", "embryology", "Evolutionary developmental biology", "fertilization", "morphogenesis", "Evolutionary biology", "Organismal evolution", "Animal evolution", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "Zoology", "Reptile biology", "strategies", "extant", "amphibian"], "article_id"=>969559, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Noah D. Charney", "John J. Castorino", "Megan J. Dobro", "Sarah L. Steely"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091919.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reproductive_strategies_among_extant_amphibian_species_/969559", "title"=>"Reproductive strategies among extant amphibian species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-20 04:47:33"}

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