Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia
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{"title"=>"Sound symbolism in the languages of Australia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Hannah", "last_name"=>"Haynie", "scopus_author_id"=>"56145667600"}, {"first_name"=>"Claire", "last_name"=>"Bowern", "scopus_author_id"=>"25521434900"}, {"first_name"=>"Hannah", "last_name"=>"LaPalombara", "scopus_author_id"=>"56145250900"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24752356", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0092852", "sgr"=>"84899700770", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899700770", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372991391"}, "id"=>"583cc36c-7aac-3354-969d-5e0176bc424a", "abstract"=>"The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These \"sound symbolic\" forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting \"smallness\" or \"nearness\" with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting \"largeness\" or \"distance\" with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of \"smallness\" and \"proximity\" in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sound-symbolism-languages-australia", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>7, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Linguistics"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>17}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555866"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percent of lexical items containing low-frequency sounds, by position in word.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "percent", "lexical", "items", "containing", "low-frequency"], "article_id"=>1075536, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percent_of_lexical_items_containing_low_frequency_sounds_by_position_in_word_/1075536", "title"=>"Mean percent of lexical items containing low-frequency sounds, by position in word.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555868"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percent of words containing high-frequency sounds and mean overall percent occurrence of high-frequency sounds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "percent", "words", "containing", "high-frequency", "sounds", "occurrence"], "article_id"=>1075538, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percent_of_words_containing_high_frequency_sounds_and_mean_overall_percent_occurrence_of_high_frequency_sounds_/1075538", "title"=>"Mean percent of words containing high-frequency sounds and mean overall percent occurrence of high-frequency sounds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555870"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percent of lexical items containing high-frequency sounds, by position in word.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "percent", "lexical", "items", "containing", "high-frequency"], "article_id"=>1075540, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percent_of_lexical_items_containing_high_frequency_sounds_by_position_in_word_/1075540", "title"=>"Mean percent of lexical items containing high-frequency sounds, by position in word.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555871"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percent of lexical items containing low-frequency sounds, by position in word.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "percent", "lexical", "items", "containing", "low-frequency"], "article_id"=>1075541, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percent_of_lexical_items_containing_low_frequency_sounds_by_position_in_word_/1075541", "title"=>"Mean percent of lexical items containing low-frequency sounds, by position in word.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555872"], "description"=>"<p>Size and distance vocabulary words were compiled from the lexica by tagging all translations of the following words. The words were divided into semantic fields and tagged for expectations of whether they should cluster in the “high/small” frame or “low/large” frame.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics"], "article_id"=>1075542, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Size_and_Distance_Vocabulary_/1075542", "title"=>"Size and Distance Vocabulary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555875"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percent occurrence of iconic sounds in magnitude-related and general vocabulary.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "percent", "occurrence", "iconic", "sounds", "magnitude-related"], "article_id"=>1075544, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percent_occurrence_of_iconic_sounds_in_magnitude_related_and_general_vocabulary_/1075544", "title"=>"Mean percent occurrence of iconic sounds in magnitude-related and general vocabulary.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555879"], "description"=>"<p>T-test results for additional phoneme classes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "phoneme"], "article_id"=>1075549, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T_test_results_for_additional_phoneme_classes_/1075549", "title"=>"T-test results for additional phoneme classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555880"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percent of lexical items containing high-frequency sounds, by position in word.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "percent", "lexical", "items", "containing", "high-frequency"], "article_id"=>1075550, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percent_of_lexical_items_containing_high_frequency_sounds_by_position_in_word_/1075550", "title"=>"Mean percent of lexical items containing high-frequency sounds, by position in word.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555881"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percent of words containing low-frequency sounds and mean overall percent occurrence of low-frequency sounds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "percent", "words", "containing", "low-frequency", "sounds", "occurrence"], "article_id"=>1075551, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percent_of_words_containing_low_frequency_sounds_and_mean_overall_percent_occurrence_of_low_frequency_sounds_/1075551", "title"=>"Mean percent of words containing low-frequency sounds and mean overall percent occurrence of low-frequency sounds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555883"], "description"=>"<p>Moran's I for significant general frequency-magnitude patterns.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "frequency-magnitude"], "article_id"=>1075554, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.t017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Moran_s_I_for_significant_general_frequency_magnitude_patterns_/1075554", "title"=>"Moran's I for significant general frequency-magnitude patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555888"], "description"=>"<div><p>The notion that linguistic forms and meanings are related only by convention and not by any direct relationship between sounds and semantic concepts is a foundational principle of modern linguistics. Though the principle generally holds across the lexicon, systematic exceptions have been identified. These “sound symbolic” forms have been identified in lexical items and linguistic processes in many individual languages. This paper examines sound symbolism in the languages of Australia. We conduct a statistical investigation of the evidence for several common patterns of sound symbolism, using data from a sample of 120 languages. The patterns examined here include the association of meanings denoting “smallness” or “nearness” with front vowels or palatal consonants, and the association of meanings denoting “largeness” or “distance” with back vowels or velar consonants. Our results provide evidence for the expected associations of vowels and consonants with meanings of “smallness” and “proximity” in Australian languages. However, the patterns uncovered in this region are more complicated than predicted. Several sound-meaning relationships are only significant for segments in prominent positions in the word, and the prevailing mapping between vowel quality and magnitude meaning cannot be characterized by a simple link between gradients of magnitude and vowel F2, contrary to the claims of previous studies.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "symbolism"], "article_id"=>1075558, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sound_Symbolism_in_the_Languages_of_Australia_/1075558", "title"=>"Sound Symbolism in the Languages of Australia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555843"], "description"=>"<p>Common Australian Phoneme Inventory.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics", "australian", "phoneme"], "article_id"=>1075516, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Common_Australian_Phoneme_Inventory_/1075516", "title"=>"Common Australian Phoneme Inventory.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1555845"], "description"=>"<p>Languages in the Sample.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physics", "Acoustics", "Physical laws and principles", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "Linguistic anthropology", "linguistics", "languages", "Natural language", "Computational linguistics", "Historical linguistics", "Linguistic morphology", "Structural linguistics"], "article_id"=>1075518, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Hannah Haynie", "Claire Bowern", "Hannah LaPalombara"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092852.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Languages_in_the_Sample_/1075518", "title"=>"Languages in the Sample.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:36:00"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"81", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Linguistics", "average_usage"=>[348, 505]}]}
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