Using the Aesop's Fable Paradigm to Investigate Causal Understanding of Water Displacement by New Caledonian Crows
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{"title"=>"Using the aesop's fable paradigm to investigate causal understanding of water displacement by new caledonian crows", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sarah A.", "last_name"=>"Jelbert", "scopus_author_id"=>"56025912700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex H.", "last_name"=>"Taylor", "scopus_author_id"=>"11139315800"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucy G.", "last_name"=>"Cheke", "scopus_author_id"=>"37119885700"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicola S.", "last_name"=>"Clayton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005846043"}, {"first_name"=>"Russell D.", "last_name"=>"Gray", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403689938"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84899847883", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0092895", "pui"=>"373022973", "pmid"=>"24671252", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899847883", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"1f364268-5077-3230-8f03-a79f7a2078b0", "abstract"=>"Understanding causal regularities in the world is a key feature of human cognition. However, the extent to which non-human animals are capable of causal understanding is not well understood. Here, we used the Aesop's fable paradigm--in which subjects drop stones into water to raise the water level and obtain an out of reach reward--to assess New Caledonian crows' causal understanding of water displacement. We found that crows preferentially dropped stones into a water-filled tube instead of a sand-filled tube; they dropped sinking objects rather than floating objects; solid objects rather than hollow objects, and they dropped objects into a tube with a high water level rather than a low one. However, they failed two more challenging tasks which required them to attend to the width of the tube, and to counter-intuitive causal cues in a U-shaped apparatus. Our results indicate that New Caledonian crows possess a sophisticated, but incomplete, understanding of the causal properties of displacement, rivalling that of 5-7 year old children.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/using-aesops-fable-paradigm-investigate-causal-understanding-water-displacement-new-caledonian-crows", "reader_count"=>135, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>65, "Philosophy"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Psychology"=>23, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>23}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>65}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>5, "Netherlands"=>1, "Hungary"=>2, "United States"=>3, "China"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>1, "Thailand"=>1, "Germany"=>4, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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