Sensitizing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Taxol with Shikonin in Human Breast Cancer Cells
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{"title"=>"Sensitizing the therapeutic efficacy of taxol with shikonin in human breast cancer cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wenjuan", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56132670000"}, {"first_name"=>"Joan", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55524155600"}, {"first_name"=>"Kasey", "last_name"=>"Jackson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56132379500"}, {"first_name"=>"Runhua", "last_name"=>"Shi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102948007"}, {"first_name"=>"Yunfeng", "last_name"=>"Zhao", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406633723"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372955856", "sgr"=>"84899433298", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0094079", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899433298", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24710512"}, "id"=>"ce9ef451-4535-3806-ae85-cabe76951339", "abstract"=>"Shikonin, a small-molecule natural product which inhibits the activity of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), has been studied as an anti-cancer drug candidate in human cancer models. Here, our results demonstrate that shikonin is able to sensitize human breast cancer cells to chemotherapy by paclitaxel (taxol). Human breast adenocarcinoma MBA-MD-231 cells, which have higher levels of PKM2 expression and activity compared with MCF-7 cells, were selected to study further. The concentrations of shikonin and taxol were first selected at which they did not significantly induce cytotoxicity when treated alone, whereas the combination induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, PKM2 activity was decreased by shikonin, but not by the combination treatment. To identify the potential targets of this combination, human phospho-kinase antibody array analysis was performed and results indicated that the combination treatment inhibited the activation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6 kinases, which are known to contribute to breast cancer progression. Finally, how the combination affects breast cancer cell growth in vivo was tested using a xenograft tumor model. The results indicated that shikonin plus taxol prolonged animal survival and reduced tumor size than the vehicle treatment group. In summary, our results suggest that shikonin has a potential as an adjuvant for breast cancer therapy.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sensitizing-therapeutic-efficacy-taxol-shikonin-human-breast-cancer-cells", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1452816"], "description"=>"<p>MTT assays were performed to select the concentrations of taxol (A) and shikonin (B). C, cytotoxicity measurement of the combination of taxol and shikonin. The experiments have been repeated more than three times. * p<0.05 when compared to the control (DMSO).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell death", "Molecular cell biology", "Clinical medicine", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Basic cancer research", "Cancer treatment", "pharmacology", "Drug research and development", "Drug interactions", "women's health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Mouse models", "assay"], "article_id"=>989360, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wenjuan Li", "Joan Liu", "Kasey Jackson", "Runhua Shi", "Yunfeng Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094079.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cytotoxicity_assay_of_the_combination_treatment_/989360", "title"=>"Cytotoxicity assay of the combination treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-07 03:17:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1452817"], "description"=>"<p>*, p<0.05 compared to the control group. The experiments have been repeated more than three times.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell death", "Molecular cell biology", "Clinical medicine", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Basic cancer research", "Cancer treatment", "pharmacology", "Drug research and development", "Drug interactions", "women's health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Mouse models", "pkm2", "cells", "treated", "dmso", "taxol", "shikonin"], "article_id"=>989361, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wenjuan Li", "Joan Liu", "Kasey Jackson", "Runhua Shi", "Yunfeng Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094079.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Enzymatic_activity_of_PKM2_was_measured_from_cells_treated_with_DMSO_as_the_vehicle_control_taxol_8_nM_shikonin_2_5_956_M_and_the_combination_/989361", "title"=>"Enzymatic activity of PKM2 was measured from cells treated with DMSO as the vehicle control, taxol (8 nM), shikonin (2.5 μM), and the combination.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-07 03:17:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1452819"], "description"=>"<p>Both caspase activity (A) and annexin V conjugates for apoptosis (B) were measured in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with DMSO as the vehicle control, taxol (8 nM), shikonin (2.5 μM), and the combination. Activity was measured as Δabsorbance after 1 hr incubation with the DTT assay buffer and the AFC-conjugated substrate (n = 3 in each group). <i>* P</i><0.05 when compared to the control (DMSO), # <i>P</i><0.05 when compared to the Taxol; ** <i>P</i><0.05 when compared between SKN and Taxol+SKN.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell death", "Molecular cell biology", "Clinical medicine", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Basic cancer research", "Cancer treatment", "pharmacology", "Drug research and development", "Drug interactions", "women's health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Mouse models"], "article_id"=>989363, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wenjuan Li", "Joan Liu", "Kasey Jackson", "Runhua Shi", "Yunfeng Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094079.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apoptosis_analysis_of_the_combination_treatment_/989363", "title"=>"Apoptosis analysis of the combination treatment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-07 03:17:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1452820"], "description"=>"<p>The combination of taxol and shikonin inhibites the activation of Akt (A), p70S6 (B), and ERKs (C). Human phosphor-kinase array analysis was performed following the manufacturer's instruction. Whole cell lysate from MB231 cells treated with DMSO, taxol (8 nM), shikonin (2.5 μM), or the combination. The normalized intensity for each antibody was plotted. * p<0.05 when compared to the control (DMSO); # p<0.05 when compared to the combination.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell death", "Molecular cell biology", "Clinical medicine", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Basic cancer research", "Cancer treatment", "pharmacology", "Drug research and development", "Drug interactions", "women's health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Mouse models", "pro-survival"], "article_id"=>989365, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wenjuan Li", "Joan Liu", "Kasey Jackson", "Runhua Shi", "Yunfeng Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094079.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_the_combination_treatment_on_key_pro_survival_kinases_/989365", "title"=>"The effect of the combination treatment on key pro-survival kinases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-07 03:17:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1452821"], "description"=>"<p>MD-MB-231 cells were transplanted into the animals. When tumor size reached 300 mm<sup>3</sup>, mice were randomized to receive a single i.p. injection of DMSO (n = 7), taxol (6 mg/kg body weight, n = 11), or the combination of taxol and shikonin (1 mg/kg body weight, n = 11). p = 0.0918 when the DMSO and the combination group were compared.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell death", "Molecular cell biology", "Clinical medicine", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Basic cancer research", "Cancer treatment", "pharmacology", "Drug research and development", "Drug interactions", "women's health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Mouse models", "probability", "md-mb-231", "xenografted"], "article_id"=>989366, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wenjuan Li", "Joan Liu", "Kasey Jackson", "Runhua Shi", "Yunfeng Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094079.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_probability_of_MD_MB_231_tumor_xenografted_mice_/989366", "title"=>"Survival probability of MD-MB-231 tumor xenografted mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-07 03:17:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1452822"], "description"=>"<div><p>Shikonin, a small-molecule natural product which inhibits the activity of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), has been studied as an anti-cancer drug candidate in human cancer models. Here, our results demonstrate that shikonin is able to sensitize human breast cancer cells to chemotherapy by paclitaxel (taxol). Human breast adenocarcinoma MBA-MD-231 cells, which have higher levels of PKM2 expression and activity compared with MCF-7 cells, were selected to study further. The concentrations of shikonin and taxol were first selected at which they did not significantly induce cytotoxicity when treated alone, whereas the combination induced apoptosis. Surprisingly, PKM2 activity was decreased by shikonin, but not by the combination treatment. To identify the potential targets of this combination, human phospho-kinase antibody array analysis was performed and results indicated that the combination treatment inhibited the activation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6 kinases, which are known to contribute to breast cancer progression. Finally, how the combination affects breast cancer cell growth <i>in vivo</i> was tested using a xenograft tumor model. The results indicated that shikonin plus taxol prolonged animal survival and reduced tumor size than the vehicle treatment group. In summary, our results suggest that shikonin has a potential as an adjuvant for breast cancer therapy.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell death", "Molecular cell biology", "Clinical medicine", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Basic cancer research", "Cancer treatment", "pharmacology", "Drug research and development", "Drug interactions", "women's health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Mouse models", "therapeutic", "efficacy", "taxol", "shikonin", "cancer"], "article_id"=>989367, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wenjuan Li", "Joan Liu", "Kasey Jackson", "Runhua Shi", "Yunfeng Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094079", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sensitizing_the_Therapeutic_Efficacy_of_Taxol_with_Shikonin_in_Human_Breast_Cancer_Cells_/989367", "title"=>"Sensitizing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Taxol with Shikonin in Human Breast Cancer Cells", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-07 03:17:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1452815"], "description"=>"<p>Whole cell lysate was subjected to activity and Western blot analysis to determine the enzymatic activity (A) and protein expression (B) of PKM2. β-Actin served as the loading control. * <i>P</i><0.05 compared with MCF-7 cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell death", "Molecular cell biology", "Clinical medicine", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Basic cancer research", "Cancer treatment", "pharmacology", "Drug research and development", "Drug interactions", "women's health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Model organisms", "Animal models", "Mouse models", "pkm2", "cancer", "mda-mb-231", "cells", "mcf-7"], "article_id"=>989359, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Wenjuan Li", "Joan Liu", "Kasey Jackson", "Runhua Shi", "Yunfeng Zhao"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094079.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Enzymatic_activity_and_expression_levels_of_PKM2_were_detected_in_both_human_breast_cancer_MDA_MB_231_MB231_cells_and_MCF_7_cells_/989359", "title"=>"Enzymatic activity and expression levels of PKM2 were detected in both human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 (MB231) cells and MCF-7 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-07 03:17:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"37", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[280]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}]}
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