Over the Hill at 24: Persistent Age-Related Cognitive-Motor Decline in Reaction Times in an Ecologically Valid Video Game Task Begins in Early Adulthood
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{"title"=>"Over the hill at 24: Persistent age-related cognitive-motor decline in reaction times in an ecologically valid video game task begins in early adulthood", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joseph J.", "last_name"=>"Thompson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56327680200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark R.", "last_name"=>"Blair", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102440319"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew J.", "last_name"=>"Henrey", "scopus_author_id"=>"55890047300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84899583916", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0094215", "pmid"=>"24718593", "pui"=>"372971370", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899583916", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"45a744c8-dc3e-34a9-a9b0-75a9d15571af", "abstract"=>"Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey [1]. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hill-24-persistent-agerelated-cognitivemotor-decline-reaction-times-ecologically-valid-video-game-ta", "reader_count"=>94, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>17, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>28, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>28}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>17}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Republic of Singapore"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "New Zealand"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Netherlands"=>2, "China"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Australia"=>2, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1457098"], "description"=>"<div><p>Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0094215#pone.0094215-Thompson1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>. Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "Organism development", "aging", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Cognitive neurology", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "attention", "learning", "cognition", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Mental health and psychiatry", "neurology", "Public and occupational health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "persistent", "age-related", "cognitive-motor", "times", "ecologically", "begins"], "article_id"=>993088, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joseph J. Thompson", "Mark R. Blair", "Andrew J. Henrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094215", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Over_the_Hill_at_24_Persistent_Age_Related_Cognitive_Motor_Decline_in_Reaction_Times_in_an_Ecologically_Valid_Video_Game_Task_Begins_in_Early_Adulthood_/993088", "title"=>"Over the Hill at 24: Persistent Age-Related Cognitive-Motor Decline in Reaction Times in an Ecologically Valid Video Game Task Begins in Early Adulthood", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 03:09:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1457095"], "description"=>"<p>Split-point, K, against log likelihood. Values below the dotted line are part of the confidence region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "Organism development", "aging", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Cognitive neurology", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "attention", "learning", "cognition", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Mental health and psychiatry", "neurology", "Public and occupational health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "dotted"], "article_id"=>993085, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joseph J. Thompson", "Mark R. Blair", "Andrew J. Henrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094215.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Split_point_K_against_log_likelihood_Values_below_the_dotted_line_are_part_of_the_confidence_region_/993085", "title"=>"Split-point, K, against log likelihood. Values below the dotted line are part of the confidence region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 03:09:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1457094"], "description"=>"<p>Scatter plots of age and looking-doing latency by league.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "Organism development", "aging", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Cognitive neurology", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "attention", "learning", "cognition", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Mental health and psychiatry", "neurology", "Public and occupational health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "looking-doing", "latency"], "article_id"=>993084, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joseph J. Thompson", "Mark R. Blair", "Andrew J. Henrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094215.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scatter_plots_of_age_and_looking_doing_latency_by_league_/993084", "title"=>"Scatter plots of age and looking-doing latency by league.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 03:09:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1457090"], "description"=>"<p>Leagues, from left to right, are Bronze (n = 167; M = 22.72, SD = 5.22), Silver (n = 347; M = 22.21, SD = 5.17), Gold (n = 553; M = 22.05, SD = 4.9), Platinum (n = 811; M = 21.98, SD = 4.14), Diamond (n = 806; M = 21.36, SD = 3.66), and Masters (n = 621; M = 20.7, SD = 3.02).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "Organism development", "aging", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Cognitive neurology", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "attention", "learning", "cognition", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Mental health and psychiatry", "neurology", "Public and occupational health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health"], "article_id"=>993080, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joseph J. Thompson", "Mark R. Blair", "Andrew J. Henrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094215.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histogram_of_Age_by_league_/993080", "title"=>"Histogram of Age by league.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 03:09:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1457088"], "description"=>"<p>A screenshot from the game StarCraft 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "Organism development", "aging", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Cognitive neurology", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "attention", "learning", "cognition", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Mental health and psychiatry", "neurology", "Public and occupational health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "screenshot", "starcraft"], "article_id"=>993078, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joseph J. Thompson", "Mark R. Blair", "Andrew J. Henrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094215.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_screenshot_from_the_game_StarCraft_2_/993078", "title"=>"A screenshot from the game StarCraft 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 03:09:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1457097"], "description"=>"<p>Leagues, from top to bottom, are Bronze, Silver, Gold, Platinum, Diamond, Masters. No evidence for an interaction between league and age was found, and so depicted slopes do not differ by league.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["developmental biology", "Organism development", "aging", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Cognitive neurology", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "attention", "learning", "cognition", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Mental health and psychiatry", "neurology", "Public and occupational health", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "pac", "respective", "intercepts", "fitting", "piecewise", "linear"], "article_id"=>993087, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Joseph J. Thompson", "Mark R. Blair", "Andrew J. Henrey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094215.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Impact_of_aging_on_PAC_Latency_and_respective_intercepts_by_League_as_described_by_the_best_fitting_piecewise_linear_model_/993087", "title"=>"Impact of aging on PAC Latency, and respective intercepts by League as described by the best fitting piecewise linear model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 03:09:31"}

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Relative Metric

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