Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for Understanding the Paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene
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{"title"=>"Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of southern California: Implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anna R.", "last_name"=>"Holden", "scopus_author_id"=>"55781383900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan B.", "last_name"=>"Koch", "scopus_author_id"=>"36196928800"}, {"first_name"=>"Terry", "last_name"=>"Griswold", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603904938"}, {"first_name"=>"Diane M.", "last_name"=>"Erwin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006470964"}, {"first_name"=>"Justin", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"56134994100"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24718701", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0094724", "sgr"=>"84899534028", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899534028", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372971519"}, "id"=>"62feab35-dd54-3e11-8c52-2e36a8f797c6", "abstract"=>"The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ∼21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of M. gentilis appears to have remained stable.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/leafcutter-bee-nests-pupae-rancho-la-brea-tar-pits-southern-california-implications-understanding-pa", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456655"], "description"=>"<p>Estimates of environmental space use include eight bioclimatic variables, as well as, Cartesian (<i>i.e.,</i> latitude and longitude) and elevation variables. Clusters reflect 99% data concentration ellipses determined with the <i>scatterplot</i> (<i>car</i> library) functions in R v3.3.0 (R Core Team 2012).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "biogeography", "developmental biology", "Organism development", "ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Paleoclimatology", "components"], "article_id"=>992734, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna R. Holden", "Jonathan B. Koch", "Terry Griswold", "Diane M. Erwin", "Justin Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_components_analysis_of_environmental_space_use_by_M_gentilis_and_M_onobrychidis_/992734", "title"=>"Principal components analysis of environmental space use by <i>M. gentilis</i> and <i>M. onobrychidis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:43:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456629"], "description"=>"<p>A–C = LACMRLP 388Ea; D–G, J = LACMRLP 388Eb; H, I = LACMRLP 388Ec. (<b>A</b>) Nest cell containing male pupa showing cylindrical shape, tapered, rounded bottom at left typical of the first constructed cell, and remains of oblong leaf disc with Type 1 venation. (<b>B</b>) Bottom of first constructed cell (containing male pupa) with possible portion of bottom circular leaf disk visible and outlined with arrows. (<b>C</b>) Cap of nest cell containing male pupa. (<b>D</b>) Nest cell containing female pupa. Arrow shows margin of oblong leaf disc with Type 2 venation. (<b>E</b>) Circular, bottom disc of nest cell (containing female pupa). In life, this end abutted the anterior end of LACMRLP 388Ea. (<b>F</b>) Cap of nest cell containing female pupa. (<b>G</b>) Nest cell of female pupa showing oblong side wall leaf cutout which does not reach bottom of cell and is instead supported by circular bottom disc. (<b>H</b>) Remains of oblong leaf disc with relatively smooth-cut margins and Type 3 venation. (<b>I</b>) View showing five overlapping oblong disks (1–5) comprising the sidewalls and circular bottom disk. discs. (<b>J</b>) Nest cell containing female pupa showing Type 4 venation on upper, right corner. (<b>K</b>) Nest cell of modern <i>M. gentilis</i>, showing circular disc bottom and oblong, sidewall leaf.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "biogeography", "developmental biology", "Organism development", "ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Paleoclimatology"], "article_id"=>992713, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna R. Holden", "Jonathan B. Koch", "Terry Griswold", "Diane M. Erwin", "Justin Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Images_showing_nest_cell_construction_and_modern_nest_cell_of_Megachile_gentilis_for_comparison_/992713", "title"=>"Images showing nest cell construction and modern nest cell of <i>Megachile gentilis</i> for comparison.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:43:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456646"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison between (A) a female modern leafcutter bee (<i>Megachile rotundata</i>) and (B) LACMRLP 388E male and in order to display obvious similarity in general morphology at pupal stage.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "biogeography", "developmental biology", "Organism development", "ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Paleoclimatology", "leafcutter", "lacmrlp", "388e", "morphology", "pupal"], "article_id"=>992725, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna R. Holden", "Jonathan B. Koch", "Terry Griswold", "Diane M. Erwin", "Justin Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_between_A_a_female_modern_leafcutter_bee_Megachile_rotundata_and_B_LACMRLP_388E_male_and_in_order_to_display_obvious_similarity_in_general_morphology_at_pupal_stage_/992725", "title"=>"Comparison between (A) a female modern leafcutter bee (<i>Megachile rotundata</i>) and (B) LACMRLP 388E male and in order to display obvious similarity in general morphology at pupal stage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:43:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456682", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456683", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456684", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456685", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456686", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456688", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456689", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456690", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456691", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456692", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456693"], "description"=>"<div><p>The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world’s richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000–40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to <i>Megachile</i> (<i>Litomegachile</i>) <i>gentilis</i> Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil <i>Megachile</i> Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. <i>Megachile gentilis</i> appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum ∼21,000 years ago. Nevertheless, the broad ecological niche of <i>M. gentilis</i> appears to have remained stable.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "biogeography", "developmental biology", "Organism development", "ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Paleoclimatology", "nests", "pupae", "rancho", "la", "brea", "tar", "pits", "implications", "paleoenvironment"], "article_id"=>992752, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna R. Holden", "Jonathan B. Koch", "Terry Griswold", "Diane M. Erwin", "Justin Hall"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.s011"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Leafcutter_Bee_Nests_and_Pupae_from_the_Rancho_La_Brea_Tar_Pits_of_Southern_California_Implications_for_Understanding_the_Paleoenvironment_of_the_Late_Pleistocene_/992752", "title"=>"Leafcutter Bee Nests and Pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: Implications for Understanding the Paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:43:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456654"], "description"=>"<p>Darker colors represent high MaxEnt habitat suitability (values closer to H = 1), whereas lighter colors represent low HS (values closer to HS = 0). Black squares represent georeferenced point localities of the respective species (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724#pone.0094724.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>). Red crosshairs represent the location of the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California. Habitat suitability distributions of both species are based on eight bioclimatic variables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "biogeography", "developmental biology", "Organism development", "ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Paleoclimatology", "geographic", "glacial", "000", "years", "united"], "article_id"=>992733, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna R. Holden", "Jonathan B. Koch", "Terry Griswold", "Diane M. Erwin", "Justin Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_geographic_distribution_of_M_gentilis_and_M_onobrychidis_at_present_and_during_the_last_glacial_maximum_LGM_21_000_years_before_present_in_the_western_United_States_/992733", "title"=>"Estimated geographic distribution of <i>M. gentilis</i> and <i>M. onobrychidis</i> at present and during the last glacial maximum (LGM;∼21 000 years before present) in the western United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:43:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456639"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Dorsal view of pupa within nest. (B) Dorsal view of pupa. (C) Lateral view of pupa within nest. (D) Lateral view of pupa. (E) Cross-section of nest and pupae. (F) Ventral view of pupa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "biogeography", "developmental biology", "Organism development", "ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Paleoclimatology", "scans", "lacmrlp", "388eb", "pupa"], "article_id"=>992718, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna R. Holden", "Jonathan B. Koch", "Terry Griswold", "Diane M. Erwin", "Justin Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Micro_CT_scans_of_LACMRLP_388Eb_showing_female_pupa_and_its_position_within_the_nest_cell_/992718", "title"=>"Micro-CT scans of LACMRLP 388Eb showing female pupa and its position within the nest cell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:43:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456637"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Dorsal view of pupa within nest. (B) Dorsal view of pupa. (C) Lateral view of pupa within nest. (D) Lateral view of pupa. (E) Cross-section of nest and pupae. (F) Ventral view of pupa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "biogeography", "developmental biology", "Organism development", "ecology", "paleoecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleobotany", "Paleoclimatology", "scans", "lacmrlp", "388ea", "pupa"], "article_id"=>992715, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Anna R. Holden", "Jonathan B. Koch", "Terry Griswold", "Diane M. Erwin", "Justin Hall"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094724.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Micro_CT_scans_of_LACMRLP_388Ea_showing_male_pupa_and_its_position_within_the_nest_cell_/992715", "title"=>"Micro-CT scans of LACMRLP 388Ea showing male pupa and its position within the nest cell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:43:48"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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