Phenolic Acid Composition, Antiatherogenic and Anticancer Potential of Honeys Derived from Various Regions in Greece
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{"title"=>"Phenolic acid composition, antiatherogenic and anticancer potential of honeys derived from various regions in Greece", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Eliana", "last_name"=>"Spilioti", "scopus_author_id"=>"55953759900"}, {"first_name"=>"Mari", "last_name"=>"Jaakkola", "scopus_author_id"=>"26423769200"}, {"first_name"=>"Tiina", "last_name"=>"Tolonen", "scopus_author_id"=>"15046108700"}, {"first_name"=>"Maija", "last_name"=>"Lipponen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199576894"}, {"first_name"=>"Vesa", "last_name"=>"Virtanen", "scopus_author_id"=>"35559921600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ioanna", "last_name"=>"Chinou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004443591"}, {"first_name"=>"Eva", "last_name"=>"Kassi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603333743"}, {"first_name"=>"Sofia", "last_name"=>"Karabournioti", "scopus_author_id"=>"19933886400"}, {"first_name"=>"Paraskevi", "last_name"=>"Moutsatsou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004230982"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899678726", "sgr"=>"84899678726", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0094860", "pmid"=>"24752205", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"372991405"}, "id"=>"a8075809-d8ec-3d93-bfe4-c6ee52c979d0", "abstract"=>"The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherogenic activities which may be attributed, at least in part, to their phenolic acid content.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/phenolic-acid-composition-antiatherogenic-anticancer-potential-honeys-derived-various-regions-greece", "reader_count"=>61, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Chemistry"=>13, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>13}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554526"], "description"=>"a<p>Indicating pollen grains of <i>Thymus capitatus.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell growth", "cell adhesion", "Biochemistry", "nutrition", "Women’s health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Genitourinary tract tumors", "Prostate cancer", "Cancer prevention", "Cancer treatment", "urology", "Prostate diseases", "regions"], "article_id"=>1074336, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eliana Spilioti", "Mari Jaakkola", "Tiina Tolonen", "Maija Lipponen", "Vesa Virtanen", "Ioanna Chinou", "Eva Kassi", "Sofia Karabournioti", "Paraskevi Moutsatsou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094860.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Floral_source_and_regions_of_honey_collection_/1074336", "title"=>"Floral source and regions of honey collection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:19:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554530"], "description"=>"a<p>TP, total phenolic content, GA, gallic acid, TE, Trolox equivalent.</p>b<p>All data expressed on a honey weight basis as means ± SD (n = 3 independent determinations).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell growth", "cell adhesion", "Biochemistry", "nutrition", "Women’s health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Genitourinary tract tumors", "Prostate cancer", "Cancer prevention", "Cancer treatment", "urology", "Prostate diseases", "fructose", "phenolic", "orac", "ethyl", "acetate"], "article_id"=>1074339, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eliana Spilioti", "Mari Jaakkola", "Tiina Tolonen", "Maija Lipponen", "Vesa Virtanen", "Ioanna Chinou", "Eva Kassi", "Sofia Karabournioti", "Paraskevi Moutsatsou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094860.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Glucose_and_fructose_content_total_phenolic_content_and_ORAC_values_of_honey_ethyl_acetate_extracts_a_b_/1074339", "title"=>"Glucose and fructose content, total phenolic content and ORAC values of honey ethyl acetate extracts<sup>a</sup><sup>,</sup><sup>b</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:19:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554533"], "description"=>"a<p>PCA, protochatechuic acid, P-HBA, p-hydroxybenzoic acis, VA, vanillic acid, CA, caffeic acid, p-COUA, p-coumaric acid, HMF, hydroxymethylfurfural.</p>b<p>All data expressed on a honey weight basis as means ± SD (n = 3 independent determinations).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell growth", "cell adhesion", "Biochemistry", "nutrition", "Women’s health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Genitourinary tract tumors", "Prostate cancer", "Cancer prevention", "Cancer treatment", "urology", "Prostate diseases", "phenolic", "acids", "hydroxymethylfurfural", "ethyl", "acetate"], "article_id"=>1074343, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eliana Spilioti", "Mari Jaakkola", "Tiina Tolonen", "Maija Lipponen", "Vesa Virtanen", "Ioanna Chinou", "Eva Kassi", "Sofia Karabournioti", "Paraskevi Moutsatsou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094860.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_of_phenolic_acids_and_hydroxymethylfurfural_detected_in_honey_ethyl_acetate_extracts_a_b_/1074343", "title"=>"Concentration of phenolic acids and hydroxymethylfurfural detected in honey ethyl acetate extracts<sup>a</sup><sup>,</sup><sup>b</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:19:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554535"], "description"=>"a<p>PCA, protochatechuic acid, p-HBA, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, VA, vanillic acid, CA, caffeic acid, p-COUA, p-coumaric acid, TP, total phenolic content.</p>b<p>Values represent Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r).</p>c<p>The minimum level of significance was set at p<0.05 (*), p<0.01 (**), p<0.001 (***).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell growth", "cell adhesion", "Biochemistry", "nutrition", "Women’s health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Genitourinary tract tumors", "Prostate cancer", "Cancer prevention", "Cancer treatment", "urology", "Prostate diseases", "phenolic"], "article_id"=>1074345, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eliana Spilioti", "Mari Jaakkola", "Tiina Tolonen", "Maija Lipponen", "Vesa Virtanen", "Ioanna Chinou", "Eva Kassi", "Sofia Karabournioti", "Paraskevi Moutsatsou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094860.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_study_between_the_results_of_biological_tests_and_phenolic_acid_content_a_b_c_/1074345", "title"=>"Correlation study between the results of biological tests and phenolic acid content<sup>a</sup><sup>,</sup><sup>b</sup><sup>,</sup><sup>c</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:19:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554540"], "description"=>"<div><p>The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherogenic activities which may be attributed, at least in part, to their phenolic acid content.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell growth", "cell adhesion", "Biochemistry", "nutrition", "Women’s health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Genitourinary tract tumors", "Prostate cancer", "Cancer prevention", "Cancer treatment", "urology", "Prostate diseases", "antiatherogenic", "anticancer", "honeys", "derived", "regions"], "article_id"=>1074349, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eliana Spilioti", "Mari Jaakkola", "Tiina Tolonen", "Maija Lipponen", "Vesa Virtanen", "Ioanna Chinou", "Eva Kassi", "Sofia Karabournioti", "Paraskevi Moutsatsou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094860", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phenolic_Acid_Composition_Antiatherogenic_and_Anticancer_Potential_of_Honeys_Derived_from_Various_Regions_in_Greece_/1074349", "title"=>"Phenolic Acid Composition, Antiatherogenic and Anticancer Potential of Honeys Derived from Various Regions in Greece", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:19:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554507"], "description"=>"<p>HPLC-DAD chromatograms (280 nm) obtained from honey samples (H1, H5, H10) and a standard mixture of phenolic acids and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Peak identification: (1) gallic acid; (2) HMF; (3) protocatechuic acid; (4) p-hydroxybenzoic acid; (5) chlorogenic acid; (6) vanillic acid; (7) caffeic acid; (8) syringic acid; (9) p-coumaric acid; (10) ferrulic acid; (11) sinapic acid; (12) benzoic acid; (13) trans-cinnamic acid.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell growth", "cell adhesion", "Biochemistry", "nutrition", "Women’s health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Genitourinary tract tumors", "Prostate cancer", "Cancer prevention", "Cancer treatment", "urology", "Prostate diseases", "chromatograms", "extracts"], "article_id"=>1074319, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eliana Spilioti", "Mari Jaakkola", "Tiina Tolonen", "Maija Lipponen", "Vesa Virtanen", "Ioanna Chinou", "Eva Kassi", "Sofia Karabournioti", "Paraskevi Moutsatsou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094860.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representative_chromatograms_of_honey_extracts_and_standards_/1074319", "title"=>"Representative chromatograms of honey extracts and standards.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:19:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554519"], "description"=>"<p>Greek honey extracts (H1–H12) inhibit TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 (A) and VCAM-1 (B) protein expression in HAEC. HAEC were incubated in the absence of TNF-α or compounds (control), with αT3 (25 µΜ), or with different concentrations (20–500 µg/ml) of honey extracts for 18 h, followed by stimulation with TNF-α (1 ng/mL) for up to 24 h. Adhesion molecules were measured by cell ELISA. Results are expressed as percent of control. A *p<0.05 value was considered statistically significant when compared to TNF-α-treated cells (**p<0.01, ***p<0.001). Values represent mean ± SD based on three independent experiments performed in triplicate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell growth", "cell adhesion", "Biochemistry", "nutrition", "Women’s health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Genitourinary tract tumors", "Prostate cancer", "Cancer prevention", "Cancer treatment", "urology", "Prostate diseases", "extracts", "inhibit", "adhesion"], "article_id"=>1074330, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eliana Spilioti", "Mari Jaakkola", "Tiina Tolonen", "Maija Lipponen", "Vesa Virtanen", "Ioanna Chinou", "Eva Kassi", "Sofia Karabournioti", "Paraskevi Moutsatsou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094860.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Greek_honey_extracts_inhibit_TNF_945_induced_adhesion_molecule_expression_/1074330", "title"=>"Greek honey extracts inhibit TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:19:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1554524"], "description"=>"<p>Greek honey extracts (H1–H12) inhibit viability of PC-3 (A) and MCF-7 (B) cells. Cells were incubated in the absence of compounds (control) or with different concentrations (20–500 µg/ml) of honey extracts for 48 h. As a positive control, MCF-7 and PC-3 cells were cultured with ICI 182780 (0.1 µΜ) and doxorubicin (1 µΜ) respectively. After treatment, cells were subjected to the MTT assay. Results are expressed as percent of control. A *p<0.05 value was considered statistically significant when compared to TNF-α-treated cells (**p<0.01, ***p<0.001). Values represent mean ± SD based on three independent experiments performed in triplicate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cell processes", "Cell growth", "cell adhesion", "Biochemistry", "nutrition", "Women’s health", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Complementary and alternative medicine", "oncology", "Cancers and neoplasms", "Breast tumors", "breast cancer", "Genitourinary tract tumors", "Prostate cancer", "Cancer prevention", "Cancer treatment", "urology", "Prostate diseases", "extracts", "inhibit", "viability", "prostate", "cancer"], "article_id"=>1074334, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eliana Spilioti", "Mari Jaakkola", "Tiina Tolonen", "Maija Lipponen", "Vesa Virtanen", "Ioanna Chinou", "Eva Kassi", "Sofia Karabournioti", "Paraskevi Moutsatsou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094860.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Greek_honey_extracts_inhibit_viability_of_prostate_and_breast_cancer_cells_/1074334", "title"=>"Greek honey extracts inhibit viability of prostate and breast cancer cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-21 10:19:48"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[262]}]}
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Net::HTTPTooManyRequests

Source
Scopus
Time
2019-08-16 21:14:15 UTC
Target URL
https://api.elsevier.com/content/search/index:SCOPUS?query=DOI(10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0094860)
Trace

/app/models/concerns/networkable.rb:21:in `get_result'
/app/models/source.rb:165:in `get_data'
/app/models/retrieval_status.rb:47:in `perform_get_data'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:52:in `block (2 levels) in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:51:in `block in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `each'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `perform'