New Specimens of Yanornis Indicate a Piscivorous Diet and Modern Alimentary Canal
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{"title"=>"New specimens of Yanornis indicate a piscivorous diet and modern alimentary canal", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Xiaoting", "last_name"=>"Zheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"24767248300"}, {"first_name"=>"Jingmai K.", "last_name"=>"O'Connor", "scopus_author_id"=>"11438817200"}, {"first_name"=>"Fritz", "last_name"=>"Huchzermeyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004010744"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaoli", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55491223200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yan", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55622094500"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaomei", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56144265100"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhonghe", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406096187"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899629566", "pui"=>"372981557", "pmid"=>"24733485", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0095036", "sgr"=>"84899629566"}, "id"=>"1b9dd1ca-ee56-30c9-97bd-a4c2a4a13306", "abstract"=>"A crop adapted for an herbivorous diet of seeds has previously been documented in the Early Cretaceous birds Sapeornis and Hongshanornis. Here we report on several specimens of Yanornis that preserve a crop containing fish. One specimen preserves two whole fish in the oesophagus, indicating that Early Cretaceous birds shared trophic specializations with Neornithes for the increased energetic demands of flight - namely the storing of food for later consumption when the stomach is full. Whole fish also indicate that despite their presence, teeth were not used to orally process food, suggesting the hypertrophied dentition in this taxon were utilized in prey capture. The presence of macerated fish bones in the crop of other specimens indicates the highly efficient advanced muscular system of peristalsis responsible for moving ingested items between different segments of the alimentary canal was also in place. Despite the fact many features of the modern avian alimentary canal are inferred to compensate for the absence of teeth in birds (expandable oesophagus, grinding gizzard), the derived alimentary canal was apparently present in toothed Cretaceous birds. Although Yanornis was considered to have switched their diet from piscivorous to herbivorous, based on position and morphology we reinterpret the gastroliths reported in one specimen as sand impacted in the intestines, and reconstruct the taxon as primarily piscivorous. This is a novel interpretation for fossilized gastroliths, and the first documentation of this condition in the fossil record.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/new-specimens-yanornis-indicate-piscivorous-diet-modern-alimentary-canal", "reader_count"=>22, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>13}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Japan"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1463065"], "description"=>"<p>List of <i>Yanornis</i> sp. specimens preserving direct evidence of diet.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Digestive system", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "physiology", "Digestive physiology", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "specimens", "preserving"], "article_id"=>998115, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaoting Zheng", "Jingmai K. O'Connor", "Fritz Huchzermeyer", "Xiaoli Wang", "Yan Wang", "Xiaomei Zhang", "Zhonghe Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095036.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_List_of_Yanornis_sp_specimens_preserving_direct_evidence_of_diet_/998115", "title"=>"List of <i>Yanornis</i> sp. specimens preserving direct evidence of diet.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-14 02:59:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1463064"], "description"=>"<p>Enlarged red box shows preservation of sand compacted in the intestines. The grit is clearly too caudally located to represent gizzard stones. The oesophagus is drawn in a way to demonstrate its flexibility; it leads to the small proventriculus (pyloric sphincter indicated by dashed circle), followed by the larger ventriculus, and then the intestines and cloaca. Scale bar equals 1 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Digestive system", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "physiology", "Digestive physiology", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "alimentary", "canal", "superimposed", "ivpp"], "article_id"=>998114, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaoting Zheng", "Jingmai K. O'Connor", "Fritz Huchzermeyer", "Xiaoli Wang", "Yan Wang", "Xiaomei Zhang", "Zhonghe Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095036.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interpretative_drawing_of_the_alimentary_canal_of_Yanornis_superimposed_over_IVPP_V13558_/998114", "title"=>"Interpretative drawing of the alimentary canal of <i>Yanornis</i> superimposed over IVPP V13558.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-14 02:59:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1463038"], "description"=>"<p><i>Yanornis</i> STM9-46 preserving macerated fish bones in the crop and ventriculus: (A) full slab, scale bar equals four cm; (B) detail of the crop, scale bar equals one cm; (C) detail of the ventriculus, scale bar equals one mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Digestive system", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "physiology", "Digestive physiology", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "stm9-46", "preserving", "macerated", "bones", "equals"], "article_id"=>998091, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaoting Zheng", "Jingmai K. O'Connor", "Fritz Huchzermeyer", "Xiaoli Wang", "Yan Wang", "Xiaomei Zhang", "Zhonghe Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095036.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Yanornis_STM9_46_preserving_macerated_fish_bones_in_the_crop_and_ventriculus_A_full_slab_scale_bar_equals_four_cm_B_detail_of_the_crop_scale_bar_equals_one_cm_C_detail_of_the_ventriculus_scale_bar_equals_one_mm_/998091", "title"=>"<i>Yanornis</i> STM9-46 preserving macerated fish bones in the crop and ventriculus: (A) full slab, scale bar equals four cm; (B) detail of the crop, scale bar equals one cm; (C) detail of the ventriculus, scale bar equals one mm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-14 02:59:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1463056"], "description"=>"<p>Detail photographs of <i>Yanornis</i> specimens preserving fish remains in the alimentary canal: (A) macerated fish bones and a few accidentally ingested stones preserved in the ventriculus of STM9-51; (B) the articulated “microtenoid” scales of the fish <i>Protopspherus</i> preserved in the crop of STM9-19; (C) an entire fish, referable to <i>Jinanichthys</i>, preserved in the crop of STM9-31; (D) macerated fish bones preserved in the crop of SMT9-18.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Digestive system", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "physiology", "Digestive physiology", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "photographs", "specimens", "preserving", "remains", "alimentary", "macerated", "bones", "accidentally", "ingested", "stones", "preserved", "ventriculus", "articulated", "scales", "referable"], "article_id"=>998108, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaoting Zheng", "Jingmai K. O'Connor", "Fritz Huchzermeyer", "Xiaoli Wang", "Yan Wang", "Xiaomei Zhang", "Zhonghe Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095036.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detail_photographs_of_Yanornis_specimens_preserving_fish_remains_in_the_alimentary_canal_A_macerated_fish_bones_and_a_few_accidentally_ingested_stones_preserved_in_the_ventriculus_of_STM9_51_B_the_articulated_microtenoid_scales_of_the_fish_Protopspherus_/998108", "title"=>"Detail photographs of <i>Yanornis</i> specimens preserving fish remains in the alimentary canal: (A) macerated fish bones and a few accidentally ingested stones preserved in the ventriculus of STM9-51; (B) the articulated “microtenoid” scales of the fish <i>Protopspherus</i> preserved in the crop of STM9-19; (C) an entire fish, referable to <i>Jinanichthys</i>, preserved in the crop of STM9-31; (D) macerated fish bones preserved in the crop of SMT9-18.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-14 02:59:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1463031"], "description"=>"<p><i>Yanornis</i> STM9-15 preserving whole fish in the crop and macerated fish bones in the ventriculus: (A) full slab, scale bar equals five cm; (B) detail of the crop, scale bar equals one cm; (C) detail of the ventriculus, scale bar equals one mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Digestive system", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "physiology", "Digestive physiology", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "stm9-15", "preserving", "macerated", "bones", "equals"], "article_id"=>998084, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaoting Zheng", "Jingmai K. O'Connor", "Fritz Huchzermeyer", "Xiaoli Wang", "Yan Wang", "Xiaomei Zhang", "Zhonghe Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095036.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>79, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Yanornis_STM9_15_preserving_whole_fish_in_the_crop_and_macerated_fish_bones_in_the_ventriculus_A_full_slab_scale_bar_equals_five_cm_B_detail_of_the_crop_scale_bar_equals_one_cm_C_detail_of_the_ventriculus_scale_bar_equals_one_mm_/998084", "title"=>"<i>Yanornis</i> STM9-15 preserving whole fish in the crop and macerated fish bones in the ventriculus: (A) full slab, scale bar equals five cm; (B) detail of the crop, scale bar equals one cm; (C) detail of the ventriculus, scale bar equals one mm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-14 02:59:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1463080"], "description"=>"<div><p>A crop adapted for an herbivorous diet of seeds has previously been documented in the Early Cretaceous birds <i>Sapeornis</i> and <i>Hongshanornis</i>. Here we report on several specimens of <i>Yanornis</i> that preserve a crop containing fish. One specimen preserves two whole fish in the oesophagus, indicating that Early Cretaceous birds shared trophic specializations with Neornithes for the increased energetic demands of flight – namely the storing of food for later consumption when the stomach is full. Whole fish also indicate that despite their presence, teeth were not used to orally process food, suggesting the hypertrophied dentition in this taxon were utilized in prey capture. The presence of macerated fish bones in the crop of other specimens indicates the highly efficient advanced muscular system of peristalsis responsible for moving ingested items between different segments of the alimentary canal was also in place. Despite the fact many features of the modern avian alimentary canal are inferred to compensate for the absence of teeth in birds (expandable oesophagus, grinding gizzard), the derived alimentary canal was apparently present in toothed Cretaceous birds. Although <i>Yanornis</i> was considered to have switched their diet from piscivorous to herbivorous, based on position and morphology we reinterpret the gastroliths reported in one specimen as sand impacted in the intestines, and reconstruct the taxon as primarily piscivorous. This is a novel interpretation for fossilized gastroliths, and the first documentation of this condition in the fossil record.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "Digestive system", "Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleozoology", "Vertebrate paleontology", "physiology", "Digestive physiology", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "specimens", "piscivorous", "alimentary", "canal"], "article_id"=>998130, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaoting Zheng", "Jingmai K. O'Connor", "Fritz Huchzermeyer", "Xiaoli Wang", "Yan Wang", "Xiaomei Zhang", "Zhonghe Zhou"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095036", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/New_Specimens_of_Yanornis_Indicate_a_Piscivorous_Diet_and_Modern_Alimentary_Canal/998130", "title"=>"New Specimens of <i>Yanornis</i> Indicate a Piscivorous Diet and Modern Alimentary Canal", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-14 02:59:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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