Long-Term Citizen-Collected Data Reveal Geographical Patterns and Temporal Trends in Lake Water Clarity
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{"title"=>"Long-term citizen-collected data reveal geographical patterns and temporal trends in lake water clarity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Noah R.", "last_name"=>"Lottig", "scopus_author_id"=>"16199920300"}, {"first_name"=>"Tyler", "last_name"=>"Wagner", "scopus_author_id"=>"13408159900"}, {"first_name"=>"Emily Norton", "last_name"=>"Henry", "scopus_author_id"=>"56041517200"}, {"first_name"=>"Kendra Spence", "last_name"=>"Cheruvelil", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801497150"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine E.", "last_name"=>"Webster", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102515108"}, {"first_name"=>"John A.", "last_name"=>"Downing", "scopus_author_id"=>"55436146700"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig A.", "last_name"=>"Stow", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005526058"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84922480759", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0095769", "pui"=>"608056289", "pmid"=>"24788722", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84922480759", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"85f30b11-12ac-3405-87d6-8e63e278e4c0", "abstract"=>"We compiled a lake-water clarity database using publically available, citizen volunteer observations made between 1938 and 2012 across eight states in the Upper Midwest, USA. Our objectives were to determine (1) whether temporal trends in lake-water clarity existed across this large geographic area and (2) whether trends were related to the lake-specific characteristics of latitude, lake size, or time period the lake was monitored. Our database consisted of >140,000 individual Secchi observations from 3,251 lakes that we summarized per lake-year, resulting in 21,020 summer averages. Using Bayesian hierarchical modeling, we found approximately a 1% per year increase in water clarity (quantified as Secchi depth) for the entire population of lakes. On an individual lake basis, 7% of lakes showed increased water clarity and 4% showed decreased clarity. Trend direction and strength were related to latitude and median sample date. Lakes in the southern part of our study-region had lower average annual summer water clarity, more negative long-term trends, and greater inter-annual variability in water clarity compared to northern lakes. Increasing trends were strongest for lakes with median sample dates earlier in the period of record (1938–2012). Our ability to identify specific mechanisms for these trends is currently hampered by the lack of a large, multi-thematic database of variables that drive water clarity (e.g., climate, land use/cover). Our results demonstrate, however, that citizen science can provide the critical monitoring data needed to address environmental questions at large spatial and long temporal scales. Collaborations among citizens, research scientists, and government agencies may be important for developing the data sources and analytical tools necessary to move toward an understanding of the factors influencing macro-scale patterns such as those shown here for lake water clarity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/longterm-citizencollected-data-reveal-geographical-patterns-temporal-trends-lake-water-clarity-1", "reader_count"=>55, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>18, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>18}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1477762"], "description"=>"<p>Pietro Secchi, who lived in Italy during the 1800s, is recognized as the founder of the method of using a Secchi transparency disk to measure water clarity (Photo by K.E. Webster).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Limnology", "Water quality", "pietro", "angelo", "secchi", "villa", "borghese"], "article_id"=>1009976, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Noah R. Lottig", "Tyler Wagner", "Emily Norton Henry", "Kendra Spence Cheruvelil", "Katherine E. Webster", "John A. Downing", "Craig A. Stow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095769.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Monument_to_Pietro_Angelo_Secchi_in_the_Villa_Borghese_Park_in_Rome_/1009976", "title"=>"Monument to Pietro Angelo Secchi in the Villa Borghese Park in Rome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-30 02:59:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1477779"], "description"=>"<p>Size and color of symbol designate record lengths. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0095769#pone-0095769-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a> for information on citizen monitoring networks by state.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Limnology", "Water quality", "midwest", "states", "secchi", "lengths", "monitored", "lakes", "included"], "article_id"=>1009993, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Noah R. Lottig", "Tyler Wagner", "Emily Norton Henry", "Kendra Spence Cheruvelil", "Katherine E. Webster", "John A. Downing", "Craig A. Stow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095769.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Upper_Midwest_states_in_the_US_and_Secchi_record_lengths_years_for_all_citizen_monitored_lakes_included_in_the_study_/1009993", "title"=>"Upper Midwest states in the US and Secchi record lengths (years) for all citizen monitored lakes included in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-30 02:59:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1477780"], "description"=>"<p>Long-term trend (B) positive values indicate long-term increases in water clarity (i.e., increased water clarity) and negative values indicate long-term declines in water clarity (i.e., decreased water clarity) for individual lakes. Probability of lake specific long-term trends (C) left of the dotted red line indicate the number of lakes with long-term annual declines in water clarity (Secchi depth becoming shallower) and associated probability of those long-term declines; values to the right indicate the number of lakes with long-term increases in annual water clarity (Secchi depth becoming deeper) and associated probability of those long-term increases.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Limnology", "Water quality", "lake-specific", "secchi", "depths", "trends", "probability", "hierarchical", "bayesian"], "article_id"=>1009994, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Noah R. Lottig", "Tyler Wagner", "Emily Norton Henry", "Kendra Spence Cheruvelil", "Katherine E. Webster", "John A. Downing", "Craig A. Stow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095769.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_lake_specific_overall_average_Secchi_depths_from_Eq_1_A_long_term_trends_from_Eq_1_B_and_probability_of_lake_specific_long_term_trend_probability_of_estimated_in_Eq_1_of_being_either_0_C_based_on_a_hierarchical_Bayesian_analysis_/1009994", "title"=>"Distribution of lake-specific overall average Secchi depths ( from Eq. 1; A), long-term trends ( from Eq. 1; B), and probability of lake specific long-term trend (probability of estimated in Eq. 1 of being either <0 or >0; C) based on a hierarchical Bayesian analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-30 02:59:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1477781"], "description"=>"<p>Solid points represent the parameter estimate for each individual lake and vertical lines represent the 95% credible interval of the estimates. Solid blue line represents the trend between each parameter and latitude. Grey shading around the solid blue lines represents the 95% credible interval of the latitudinal trend.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Limnology", "Water quality", "secchi", "inter-annual", "variability", "spatial", "lakes", "midwest", "united"], "article_id"=>1009995, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Noah R. Lottig", "Tyler Wagner", "Emily Norton Henry", "Kendra Spence Cheruvelil", "Katherine E. Webster", "John A. Downing", "Craig A. Stow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095769.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_average_annual_summer_Secchi_depth_A_long_term_trend_B_and_inter_annual_variability_C_and_spatial_location_latitude_for_3_251_lakes_in_the_Upper_Midwest_region_of_the_United_States_/1009995", "title"=>"Relationships between average annual summer Secchi depth (A), long-term trend (B), and inter-annual variability (C) and spatial location (latitude) for 3,251 lakes in the Upper Midwest region of the United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-30 02:59:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1477782"], "description"=>"<p>Solid points represent the parameter estimate for each individual lake and vertical lines represent the 95% credible interval of the estimates. Solid blue line represents the trend between each parameter and latitude. Grey shading is the 95% credible interval of the latitudinal trend.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Limnology", "Water quality", "secchi", "inter-annual", "variability", "median", "lakes", "midwest", "united"], "article_id"=>1009996, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Noah R. Lottig", "Tyler Wagner", "Emily Norton Henry", "Kendra Spence Cheruvelil", "Katherine E. Webster", "John A. Downing", "Craig A. Stow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095769.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_average_annual_summer_Secchi_depth_A_long_term_trend_B_and_inter_annual_variability_C_and_median_sample_date_see_text_for_details_for_3_251_lakes_in_the_Upper_Midwest_region_of_the_United_States_/1009996", "title"=>"Relationships between average annual summer Secchi depth (A), long-term trend (B), and inter-annual variability (C) and median sample date (see text for details) for 3,251 lakes in the Upper Midwest region of the United States.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-30 02:59:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1477784"], "description"=>"<p>Data are Log<sub>10</sub> transformed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Limnology", "Water quality", "sizes", "hectare", "2007", "Hydrography", "dataset", "included", "monitoring", "networks"], "article_id"=>1009998, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Noah R. Lottig", "Tyler Wagner", "Emily Norton Henry", "Kendra Spence Cheruvelil", "Katherine E. Webster", "John A. Downing", "Craig A. Stow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095769.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_lake_sizes_surface_areas_gt_4_hectare_in_the_study_region_based_on_2007_National_Hydrography_Dataset_red_relative_to_the_distribution_of_lake_sizes_included_in_citizen_science_monitoring_networks_green_/1009998", "title"=>"Distribution of lake sizes (surface areas) >4 hectare in the study region based on 2007 National Hydrography Dataset (red) relative to the distribution of lake sizes included in citizen science monitoring networks (green).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-30 02:59:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1477785"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers represent totals through 2012.</p>1<p>Number of lakes determined from 2007 National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) with surface area equal to or greater than 4 ha.</p>2<p>Includes all citizen Secchi observations available from designated monitoring network.</p>3<p><a href=\"http://www.epa.state.il.us/water/vlmp\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.epa.state.il.us/water/vlmp</a>.</p>4<p><a href=\"http://www.indiana.edu/~clp\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.indiana.edu/~clp</a>.</p>5<p><a href=\"http://www.Secchidipin.org\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.Secchidipin.org</a>.</p>6<p><a href=\"http://www.micorps.net/\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.micorps.net/</a>.</p>7<p><a href=\"http://www.lmvp.org\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.lmvp.org</a>.</p>8<p><a href=\"http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/water/water-types-and-programs/surface-water/lakes/citizen-lake-monitoring-program/index.html\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.pca.state.mn.us/index.php/water/water-types-and-programs/surface-water/lakes/citizen-lake-monitoring-program/index.html</a>.</p>9<p><a href=\"http://www.olms.org/citizen-lake-awareness-and-monitoring\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.olms.org/citizen-lake-awareness-and-monitoring</a>.</p>10<p><a href=\"http://dnr.wi.gov/lakes/CLMN\" target=\"_blank\">http://dnr.wi.gov/lakes/CLMN</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Limnology", "Water quality", "sources", "records", "monitoring", "networks", "included"], "article_id"=>1009999, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Noah R. Lottig", "Tyler Wagner", "Emily Norton Henry", "Kendra Spence Cheruvelil", "Katherine E. Webster", "John A. Downing", "Craig A. Stow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095769.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_the_data_sources_and_records_available_from_the_citizen_monitoring_networks_included_in_this_study_/1009999", "title"=>"Overview of the data sources and records available from the citizen monitoring networks included in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-30 02:59:00"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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