Bradykinesia-Akinesia Incoordination Test: Validating an Online Keyboard Test of Upper Limb Function
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{"title"=>"Bradykinesia-akinesia incoordination test: Validating an online keyboard test of upper limb function", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alastair J.", "last_name"=>"Noyce", "scopus_author_id"=>"24438206900"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna", "last_name"=>"Nagy", "scopus_author_id"=>"56146259800"}, {"first_name"=>"Shami", "last_name"=>"Acharya", "scopus_author_id"=>"56147305800"}, {"first_name"=>"Shahrzad", "last_name"=>"Hadavi", "scopus_author_id"=>"50461640900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan P.", "last_name"=>"Bestwick", "scopus_author_id"=>"14027999700"}, {"first_name"=>"Julian", "last_name"=>"Fearnley", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603330015"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew J.", "last_name"=>"Lees", "scopus_author_id"=>"23988930400"}, {"first_name"=>"Gavin", "last_name"=>"Giovannoni", "scopus_author_id"=>"34770127900"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84899745927", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0096260", "pmid"=>"24781810", "pui"=>"373008244", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899745927", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"915a42c5-1110-3d5e-8bd1-6347f03685e3", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: The Bradykinesia Akinesia Incoordination (BRAIN) test is a computer keyboard-tapping task that was developed for use in assessing the effect of symptomatic treatment on motor function in Parkinson's disease (PD). An online version has now been designed for use in a wider clinical context and the research setting.\\r\\n\\r\\nMETHODS: Validation of the online BRAIN test was undertaken in 58 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 93 age-matched, non-neurological controls. Kinesia scores (KS30, number of key taps in 30 seconds), akinesia times (AT30, mean dwell time on each key in milliseconds), incoordination scores (IS30, variance of travelling time between key presses) and dysmetria scores (DS30, accuracy of key presses) were compared between groups. These parameters were correlated against total motor scores and sub-scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS).\\r\\n\\r\\nRESULTS: Mean KS30, AT30 and IS30 were significantly different between PD patients and controls (p≤0.0001). Sensitivity for 85% specificity was 50% for KS30, 40% for AT30 and 29% for IS30. KS30, AT30 and IS30 correlated significantly with UPDRS total motor scores (r = -0.53, r = 0.27 and r = 0.28 respectively) and motor UPDRS sub-scores. The reliability of KS30, AT30 and DS30 was good on repeated testing.\\r\\n\\r\\nCONCLUSIONS: The BRAIN test is a reliable, convenient test of upper limb motor function that can be used routinely in the outpatient clinic, at home and in clinical trials. In addition, it can be used as an objective longitudinal measurement of emerging motor dysfunction for the prediction of PD in at-risk cohorts.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bradykinesiaakinesia-incoordination-test-validating-online-keyboard-test-upper-limb-function", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Unspecified"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>17, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Design"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>17}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476872"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of KS30 (mean and standard deviation), (b) AT30 and (c) IS30 (medians and interquartile ranges). For IS30, 7 data points were out of the axis range. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for (d) KS30, (e) AT30 and (f) IS30.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "at30", "is30", "patients", "pd", "controls"], "article_id"=>1009284, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_KS30_AT30_and_IS30_in_patients_with_PD_and_controls_average_of_score_from_each_hand_/1009284", "title"=>"Comparison of KS30, AT30 and IS30 in patients with PD and controls (average of score from each hand).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476874"], "description"=>"<p>Correlation of (a) KS30, (b) AT30, (c) IS30 but not (d) DS30 with total motor UPDRS in patients with PD.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "is30", "ds30", "updrs", "patients"], "article_id"=>1009286, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_of_a_KS30_b_AT30_c_IS30_but_not_d_DS30_with_total_motor_UPDRS_in_patients_with_PD_/1009286", "title"=>"Correlation of (a) KS30, (b) AT30, (c) IS30 but not (d) DS30 with total motor UPDRS in patients with PD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476876"], "description"=>"<p>Arrows denote times at which levodopa was taken.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "pd", "patients", "predictable"], "article_id"=>1009288, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_repeat_tests_in_3_PD_patients_with_predictable_motor_fluctuation_/1009288", "title"=>"Examples of repeat tests in 3 PD patients with predictable motor fluctuation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476877"], "description"=>"<p>Arrows denote times at which levodopa was taken.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "examples", "patients", "predictable", "fluctuation", "unpredictable"], "article_id"=>1009289, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>16, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Further_examples_of_repeat_tests_in_3_patients_with_predictable_fluctuation_patient_4_and_unpredictable_motor_fluctuation_patients_5_and_6_/1009289", "title"=>"Further examples of repeat tests in 3 patients with predictable fluctuation (patient 4) and unpredictable motor fluctuation (patients 5 and 6).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476879"], "description"=>"<p>KS30, kinesia score; AT30, akinesia time; IS30, incoordination score; DS30, dysmetria score; CI, confidence interval; IQR, interquartile range.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "updrs"], "article_id"=>1009291, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_test_parameters_and_UPDRS_sub_scores_/1009291", "title"=>"Correlations between test parameters and UPDRS sub-scores.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476880"], "description"=>"<p>PD, Parkinson's disease; KS30, kinesia score; AT30, akinesia time; IS30, incoordination score; DS30, dysmetria score; CI, confidence interval; IQR, interquartile range.</p><p>NB. Ambidextrous PD patient excluded (first hand KS30 = 52, AT30 = 105; second hand KS30 = 36, AT30 = 175) and control excluded (first hand KS30 = 80, AT30 = 59; second hand KS30 = 81, AT30 = 60).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "ks30", "median", "at30", "pd", "patients", "controls"], "article_id"=>1009292, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_KS30_and_median_AT30_in_all_PD_patients_and_controls_according_to_hand_/1009292", "title"=>"Mean KS30 and median AT30 in all PD patients and controls according to hand.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476881"], "description"=>"<p>PD, Parkinson's disease. SD, standard deviation.</p><p>*On/off in this table refers to the question in the MDS-UPDRS, which asks whether participants could feel the effects of medication at the time of examination. Note it does not indicate that all participants had motor fluctuations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease"], "article_id"=>1009293, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_Information_/1009293", "title"=>"Demographic Information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476882"], "description"=>"<p>PD, Parkinson's disease; KS30, kinesia score; AT30, akinesia time; IS30, incoordination score; DS30, dysmetria score; CI, confidence interval; IQR, interquartile range.</p><p><b>*If analyses were limited to include only patients that were ‘Off’ (n = 20) the sensitivities (and cut-off) for 90% specificity for KS30, AT30 and IS30 were 65% (43), 50% (175) and 55% (29373) respectively.</b></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "ds30", "pd", "patients"], "article_id"=>1009294, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_KS30_AT30_IS30_DS30_in_all_PD_patients_versus_controls_/1009294", "title"=>"Comparison of KS30, AT30, IS30, DS30 in all<sup>*</sup> PD patients versus controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1476883"], "description"=>"<p>KS30, kinesia score; AT30, akinesia time; IS30, incoordination score; DS30, dysmetria score; CI, confidence interval; IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation.</p><p>*Mean and medians given except for associations with age where correlation coefficient (r) is given. **p-values for comparisons between right and left handedness only.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "Motor system", "biotechnology", "Medical devices and equipment", "Computer applications", "research design", "Case-control studies", "Clinical research design", "Clinical medicine", "Diagnostic medicine", "neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "ds30"], "article_id"=>1009295, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Alastair J. Noyce", "Anna Nagy", "Shami Acharya", "Shahrzad Hadavi", "Jonathan P. Bestwick", "Julian Fearnley", "Andrew J. Lees", "Gavin Giovannoni"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096260.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_factors_that_influence_KS30_AT30_IS30_DS30_in_control_subjects_/1009295", "title"=>"Analysis of factors that influence KS30, AT30, IS30, DS30 in control subjects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-29 02:47:44"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[327, 511]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[300]}]}
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