Shared Air: A Renewed Focus on Ventilation for the Prevention of Tuberculosis Transmission
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{"title"=>"Shared air: A renewed focus on ventilation for the prevention of tuberculosis transmission", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Eugene T.", "last_name"=>"Richardson", "scopus_author_id"=>"42862132100"}, {"first_name"=>"Carl D.", "last_name"=>"Morrow", "scopus_author_id"=>"8690481700"}, {"first_name"=>"Darryl B.", "last_name"=>"Kalil", "scopus_author_id"=>"56160241900"}, {"first_name"=>"Linda Gail", "last_name"=>"Bekker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003924915"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin", "last_name"=>"Wood", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404053384"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84900557907", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0096334", "sgr"=>"84900557907", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24804707", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373094151"}, "id"=>"da28c20f-eeca-3ec5-88f9-db2b00643697", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Despite an improvement in the overall TB cure rate from 40-74% between 1995 and 2011, TB incidence in South Africa continues to increase. The epidemic is notably disquieting in schools because the vulnerable population is compelled to be present. Older learners (age 15-19) are at particular risk given a smear-positive rate of 427 per 100,000 per year and the significant amount of time they spend indoors. High schools are therefore important locations for potential TB infection and thus prevention efforts.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: Using portable carbon dioxide monitors, we measured CO2 in classrooms under non-steady state conditions. The threshold for tuberculosis transmission was estimated using a carbon dioxide-based risk equation. We determined a critical rebreathed fraction of carbon dioxide (ƒ(c)) of 1 · 6%, which correlates with an indoor CO2 concentration of 1000 ppm. These values correspond with a ventilation rate of 8 · 6 l/s per person or 12 air exchanges per hour (ACH) for standard classrooms of 180 m(3).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Given the high smear positive rate of high-school adolescents in South Africa, the proposal to achieve CO2 levels of 1000 ppm through natural ventilation (in the amount 12 ACH) will not only help achieve WHO guidelines for providing children with healthy indoor environments, it will also provide a low-cost intervention for helping control the TB epidemic in areas of high prevalence.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/shared-air-renewed-focus-ventilation-prevention-tuberculosis-transmission", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>23, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>23}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "South Africa"=>2, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1489121"], "description"=>"<p>*ppm (parts per million) = mg/l</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "definitions", "computing", "ventilation", "rates"], "article_id"=>1019808, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eugene T. Richardson", "Carl D. Morrow", "Darryl B. Kalil", "Linda-Gail Bekker", "Robin Wood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameter_definitions_and_values_used_in_computing_CO_2_threshold_and_ventilation_rates_18_22_24_38_40_/1019808", "title"=>"Parameter definitions and values used in computing CO<sub>2</sub> threshold and ventilation rates [18]–[22], [24], [38]–[40].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-07 04:03:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1489122"], "description"=>"<p>CO<sub>2</sub> levels are shown in ranges of 500ppm. The dotted red line represents calculated threshold for reducing TB transmission. Sample: 64 students over 91 school days (509 class hours).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "percent", "spent"], "article_id"=>1019809, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eugene T. Richardson", "Carl D. Morrow", "Darryl B. Kalil", "Linda-Gail Bekker", "Robin Wood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_percent_of_time_spent_at_various_levels_of_total_CO_2_in_ppm_/1019809", "title"=>"The percent of time spent at various levels of total CO<sub>2</sub> (in ppm).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-07 04:03:13"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1489127"], "description"=>"<p>* Denotes calculated value.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "ventilation", "rates", "classrooms"], "article_id"=>1019813, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eugene T. Richardson", "Carl D. Morrow", "Darryl B. Kalil", "Linda-Gail Bekker", "Robin Wood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recommended_ventilation_rates_in_classrooms_by_country_41_45_/1019813", "title"=>"Recommended ventilation rates in classrooms by country [41]–[45].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-07 04:03:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1489128"], "description"=>"<p>Red line represents relationship between air flow and mean CO<sub>2</sub> concentration at steady state (defined by <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334#pone.0096334.e003\" target=\"_blank\">Equation 2</a>). Adapted from M. Santamouris <i>et al</i>. (2008) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334#pone.0096334-Santamouris1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "indoor", "concentrations", "ventilated", "classrooms"], "article_id"=>1019814, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eugene T. Richardson", "Carl D. Morrow", "Darryl B. Kalil", "Linda-Gail Bekker", "Robin Wood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_the_mean_indoor_CO_2_concentrations_in_naturally_ventilated_classrooms_and_the_air_flow_l_s_per_person_/1019814", "title"=>"Correlation between the mean indoor CO<sub>2</sub> concentrations in naturally ventilated classrooms and the air flow (l/s per person).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-07 04:03:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1489120"], "description"=>"<p>TB Notification Rates for Cape Town, 1970–2011 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334#pone.0096334-Annual1\" target=\"_blank\">[5]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Infectious diseases", "Bacterial diseases", "tuberculosis", "Infectious disease control", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "notification", "rates", "cape"], "article_id"=>1019807, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Eugene T. Richardson", "Carl D. Morrow", "Darryl B. Kalil", "Linda-Gail Bekker", "Robin Wood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096334.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TB_Notification_Rates_for_Cape_Town_1970_2011_5_/1019807", "title"=>"TB Notification Rates for Cape Town, 1970–2011 [5].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-07 04:03:13"}

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