Rapid Amygdala Responses during Trace Fear Conditioning without Awareness
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{"title"=>"Rapid amygdala responses during trace fear conditioning without awareness", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nicholas L.", "last_name"=>"Balderston", "scopus_author_id"=>"36469697800"}, {"first_name"=>"Douglas H.", "last_name"=>"Schultz", "scopus_author_id"=>"37032067400"}, {"first_name"=>"Sylvain", "last_name"=>"Baillet", "scopus_author_id"=>"56044645600"}, {"first_name"=>"Fred J.", "last_name"=>"Helmstetter", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003315682"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373143738", "sgr"=>"84901269641", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24823365", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84901269641", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0096803", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"3e5c7789-603f-3d59-a45d-347770abaf47", "abstract"=>"The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼170-200 ms) amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rapid-amygdala-responses-during-trace-fear-conditioning-without-awareness", "reader_count"=>42, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>15}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>15}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1495306"], "description"=>"<p>We used a rigorous and unbiased approach to identify potential sources of contamination. Of all the regions sampled, these are the only regions to potentially show evidence of gamma oscillations at ∼170 ms. Therefore they were subjected to further analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "consciousness", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "contributing", "observed"], "article_id"=>1024748, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicholas L. Balderston", "Douglas H. Schultz", "Sylvain Baillet", "Fred J. Helmstetter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regions_identified_as_potentially_contributing_to_signal_observed_in_the_amygdala_/1024748", "title"=>"Regions identified as potentially contributing to signal observed in the amygdala.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-13 02:50:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1495302"], "description"=>"<p>Early responses to unfiltered faces seem to be predominantly in occipital regions. Amygdala activity emerges at approximately 170>Filtered t-test at the corresponding dipole. Warm colors represent larger responses to unfiltered faces than to filtered faces. Cool colors represent larger responses to filtered faces than to unfiltered faces. Arrows highlight regions of interest discussed in text (red = V1; purple = occipital face area/lingual gyrus; black = amygdala; green = medial temporal lobe).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "consciousness", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "faces", "evoke", "larger", "responses", "filtered", "regions"], "article_id"=>1024744, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicholas L. Balderston", "Douglas H. Schultz", "Sylvain Baillet", "Fred J. Helmstetter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unfiltered_faces_evoke_larger_responses_than_filtered_faces_in_a_network_of_brain_regions_important_for_face_perception_/1024744", "title"=>"Unfiltered faces evoke larger responses than filtered faces in a network of brain regions important for face perception.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-13 02:50:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1495309"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A–C</b>) Differential spectrograms for the regions identified in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803#pone-0096803-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>. Unlike amygdala sources, these regions do not show evidence of differential gamma oscillations at ∼170 ms. (<b>D–F</b>) Similarly, these regions do not show larger evoked responses for unfiltered than for filtered stimuli at ∼170 ms. Taken together, these results suggest that activity in these regions is not contributing to the signal observed for the sources within the amygdala. Lines represent the mean±SEM. (* = <i>p</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "consciousness", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "observed"], "article_id"=>1024751, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicholas L. Balderston", "Douglas H. Schultz", "Sylvain Baillet", "Fred J. Helmstetter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regions_identified_do_not_contribute_to_signal_observed_in_the_amygdala_/1024751", "title"=>"Regions identified do not contribute to signal observed in the amygdala.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-13 02:50:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1495305"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A, B</b>) Time frequency maps evoked by unfiltered (<b>A</b>) and filtered (<b>B</b>) faces. Warm colors represent an increase in power above baseline. Cool colors represent a decrease in power below baseline. <b>C.</b> Time frequency map of difference scores for the Unfiltered>Filtered comparison. Warm colors represent Unfiltered>Filtered value. Cool colors represent Filtered>Unfiltered value. Hatched fill represents a significant difference in either direction.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "consciousness", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "faces", "evoke", "bursts", "gamma"], "article_id"=>1024747, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicholas L. Balderston", "Douglas H. Schultz", "Sylvain Baillet", "Fred J. Helmstetter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unfiltered_faces_evoke_bursts_of_gamma_activity_at_8764_170_msec_/1024747", "title"=>"Unfiltered faces evoke bursts of gamma activity at ∼170 msec.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-13 02:50:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1495304"], "description"=>"<p><b>A.</b> 3d surface model of the amygdala and hippocampus of a representative subject (amygdala vertices shown in orange). <b>B.</b> Timecourse of amygdala responses evoked by the unfiltered (light orange) and filtered (dark orange) faces. Lines represent the mean±SEM. (* = <i>p</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "consciousness", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "faces", "evoke", "larger", "amygdala", "responses", "filtered"], "article_id"=>1024746, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicholas L. Balderston", "Douglas H. Schultz", "Sylvain Baillet", "Fred J. Helmstetter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unfiltered_faces_evoke_significantly_larger_amygdala_responses_than_filtered_faces_/1024746", "title"=>"Unfiltered faces evoke significantly larger amygdala responses than filtered faces.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-13 02:50:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1495299"], "description"=>"<p>During the training session, subjects were presented with masked filtered and unfiltered face stimuli. Stimuli were presented for 30+ trials. (<b>A, B</b>) Trace fear conditioning with masked face CSs does not appear to affect differential UCS expectancy (<b>A</b>) or differential SCR expression (<b>B</b>) during a subsequent unmasked re-exposure to the stimuli. <b>C.</b> Similarly, trace fear conditioning with masked face CSs does not affect subsequent differential UCS expectancy during a subsequent reacquisition session. <b>D.</b> In contrast, trace fear conditioning with masked unfiltered, but not filtered faces, affects subsequent differential SCR expression during a subsequent reacquisition session. Bars represent the mean±SEM. (*<i>p</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "consciousness", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "conditioning", "masked", "css", "reacquisition"], "article_id"=>1024741, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicholas L. Balderston", "Douglas H. Schultz", "Sylvain Baillet", "Fred J. Helmstetter"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trace_fear_conditioning_with_masked_face_CSs_affects_performance_in_a_subsequent_reacquisition_task_/1024741", "title"=>"Trace fear conditioning with masked face CSs affects performance in a subsequent reacquisition task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-13 02:50:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1495312", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1495313"], "description"=>"<div><p>The role of consciousness in learning has been debated for nearly 50 years. Recent studies suggest that conscious awareness is needed to bridge the gap when learning about two events that are separated in time, as is true for trace fear conditioning. This has been repeatedly shown and seems to apply to other forms of classical conditioning as well. In contrast to these findings, we show that individuals can learn to associate a face with the later occurrence of a shock, even if they are unable to perceive the face. We used a novel application of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to non-invasively record neural activity from the amygdala, which is known to be important for fear learning. We demonstrate rapid (∼170–200 ms) amygdala responses during the stimulus free period between the face and the shock. These results suggest that unperceived faces can serve as signals for impending threat, and that rapid, automatic activation of the amygdala contributes to this process. In addition, we describe a methodology that can be applied in the future to study neural activity with MEG in other subcortical structures.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "consciousness", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "amygdala", "responses", "conditioning"], "article_id"=>1024754, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Nicholas L. Balderston", "Douglas H. Schultz", "Sylvain Baillet", "Fred J. Helmstetter"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096803.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rapid_Amygdala_Responses_during_Trace_Fear_Conditioning_without_Awareness_/1024754", "title"=>"Rapid Amygdala Responses during Trace Fear Conditioning without Awareness", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-05-13 02:50:04"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"96", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"149", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"100", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[307]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Signal processing", "average_usage"=>[276]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Radiology and imaging", "average_usage"=>[246]}]}
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