Lipid, Fatty Acid and Energy Density Profiles of White Sharks: Insights into the Feeding Ecology and Ecophysiology of a Complex Top Predator
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{"title"=>"Lipid, fatty acid and energy density profiles of white sharks: Insights into the feeding ecology and ecophysiology of a complex top predator", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Heidi R.", "last_name"=>"Pethybridge", "scopus_author_id"=>"16425724700"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher C.", "last_name"=>"Parrish", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103173460"}, {"first_name"=>"Barry D.", "last_name"=>"Bruce", "scopus_author_id"=>"15043633600"}, {"first_name"=>"Jock W.", "last_name"=>"Young", "scopus_author_id"=>"7408525707"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter D.", "last_name"=>"Nichols", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102273232"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24871223", "sgr"=>"84901610072", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0097877", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84901610072", "pui"=>"373194666", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"b9593802-9978-39e1-8de1-8892936457b7", "abstract"=>"Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, of various lengths (1.5-3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51-81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g-1 dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g-1 dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lipid-fatty-acid-energy-density-profiles-white-sharks-insights-feeding-ecology-ecophysiology-complex", "reader_count"=>51, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>41}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>41}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512423", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512424"], "description"=>"<div><p>Lipids are major sources of metabolic energy in sharks and are closely linked to environmental conditions and biological cycles, such as those related to diet, reproduction and migration. In this study, we report for the first time, the total lipid content, lipid class composition and fatty acid profiles of muscle and liver tissue of white sharks, <i>Carcharodon carcharias</i>, of various lengths (1.5–3.9 m), sampled at two geographically separate areas off southern and eastern Australia. Muscle tissue was low in total lipid content (<0.9% wet mass, wm) and was dominated by phospholipids (>90% of total lipid) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (34±12% of total fatty acids). In contrast, liver was high in total lipid which varied between 51–81% wm and was dominated by triacylglycerols (>93%) and monounsaturated fatty acids (36±12%). With knowledge of total lipid and dry tissue mass, we estimated the energy density of muscle (18.4±0.1 kJ g<sup>−1</sup> dm) and liver (34.1±3.2 kJ g<sup>−1</sup> dm), demonstrating that white sharks have very high energetic requirements. High among-individual variation in these biochemical parameters and related trophic markers were observed, but were not related to any one biological or environmental factor. Signature fatty acid profiles suggest that white sharks over the size range examined are generalist predators with fish, elasmobranchs and mammalian blubber all contributing to the diet. The ecological applications and physiological influences of lipids in white sharks are discussed along with recommendations for future research, including the use of non-lethal sampling to examine the nutritional condition, energetics and dietary relationships among and between individuals. Such knowledge is fundamental to better understand the implications of environmental perturbations on this iconic and threatened species.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "lipids", "ecology", "Marine ecology", "fatty", "profiles", "insights", "feeding", "Ecophysiology"], "article_id"=>1039040, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Heidi R. Pethybridge", "Christopher C. Parrish", "Barry D. Bruce", "Jock W. Young", "Peter D. Nichols"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lipid_Fatty_Acid_and_Energy_Density_Profiles_of_White_Sharks_Insights_into_the_Feeding_Ecology_and_Ecophysiology_of_a_Complex_Top_Predator_/1039040", "title"=>"Lipid, Fatty Acid and Energy Density Profiles of White Sharks: Insights into the Feeding Ecology and Ecophysiology of a Complex Top Predator", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:01:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512421"], "description"=>"<p>SFA – saturated fatty acids, MUFA – monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA – polyunsaturated fatty acids. The suffix <i>i</i> denotes branched fatty acids from the <i>iso</i>-series. FALD - fatty aldehyde analysed as dimethyl acetal.</p><p>Other fatty acids (that accounted for <0.2% of total fatty acids) are included in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877#pone.0097877.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p><p>Data presented are for 31 components, with a cut off of 0.2%. For full fatty acid profiles of individual samples, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877#pone.0097877.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "lipids", "ecology", "Marine ecology", "fatty", "acids", "coefficient", "sampled"], "article_id"=>1039038, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Heidi R. Pethybridge", "Christopher C. Parrish", "Barry D. Bruce", "Jock W. Young", "Peter D. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fatty_acid_distribution_of_white_shark_muscle_and_liver_mean_area_of_total_fatty_acids_177_standard_deviation_and_the_coefficient_of_variation_sampled_off_south_and_eastern_Australia_/1039038", "title"=>"Fatty acid distribution of white shark muscle and liver (mean area % of total fatty acids ± standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation %) sampled off south and eastern Australia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:01:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512418"], "description"=>"<p>Eigenvalues in brackets represent the percent variance explained by each axis (PC1 and PC2). Fatty acids labeled on each of the axes represent the main coefficients (or eigenvectors) contributing to each PC. Black lines represent groups that have more than 80% similarity based on non-parametric cluster analysis complete linkages. Sample codes are listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877#pone-0097877-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "lipids", "ecology", "Marine ecology", "fatty", "profiles", "juvenile", "sub-adult", "wales", "australia", "months"], "article_id"=>1039035, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Heidi R. Pethybridge", "Christopher C. Parrish", "Barry D. Bruce", "Jock W. Young", "Peter D. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_component_analysis_PCA_of_the_fatty_acid_profiles_of_juvenile_J_and_sub_adult_SA_white_shark_A_muscle_and_B_liver_collected_from_New_South_Wales_NSW_and_South_Australia_SA_during_various_months_and_years_/1039035", "title"=>"Principal component analysis (PCA) of the fatty acid profiles of juvenile (J) and sub-adult (SA) white shark (A) muscle, and (B) liver collected from New South Wales (NSW) and South Australia (SA) during various months and years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:01:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512420"], "description"=>"<p>∧Estimated by subtracting the lipid fraction from 100%.</p><p>*For comparative studies, 1 kilocalorie = 4.184 kilojoules (kJ).</p><p>Values are in dry and wet mass (dm and wm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "lipids", "ecology", "Marine ecology", "tissues", "temperate", "waters"], "article_id"=>1039037, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Heidi R. Pethybridge", "Christopher C. Parrish", "Barry D. Bruce", "Jock W. Young", "Peter D. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Biochemical_parameters_of_white_shark_tissues_collected_from_temperate_waters_off_south_east_Australia_/1039037", "title"=>"Biochemical parameters of white shark tissues collected from temperate waters off south east Australia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:01:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512419"], "description"=>"<p>Dendrogram of cluster analysis (group averages) based on a Bray-Curtis similarity matrix for comparison of the fatty acid composition of the (A) muscle and (B) liver of white shark (WS) groups (identified in this study, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877#pone-0097877-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1</a>) and from published data of white sharks collected off South Africa and to other shark species collected in Australian waters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "lipids", "ecology", "Marine ecology", "bray-curtis", "matrix", "fatty", "groups", "published", "sharks", "africa", "australian"], "article_id"=>1039036, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Heidi R. Pethybridge", "Christopher C. Parrish", "Barry D. Bruce", "Jock W. Young", "Peter D. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dendrogram_of_cluster_analysis_group_averages_based_on_a_Bray_Curtis_similarity_matrix_for_comparison_of_the_fatty_acid_composition_of_the_A_muscle_and_B_liver_of_white_shark_WS_groups_identified_in_this_study_Fig_1_and_from_published_data_of_white_shark/1039036", "title"=>"Dendrogram of cluster analysis (group averages) based on a Bray-Curtis similarity matrix for comparison of the fatty acid composition of the (A) muscle and (B) liver of white shark (WS) groups (identified in this study, Fig. 1) and from published data of white sharks collected off South Africa and to other shark species collected in Australian waters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:01:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512422"], "description"=>"<p>Sex: F- female, M- male, Unk - sex not identified. State: New South Wales (NSW), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS). Tissues analyzed include the muscle (M), and muscle sampled from the: vertebrae (Mv), dorsal area (Md), dorsal fin not including skin (Mdf), and dorsal fin including the skin (Mds) and the liver (L).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Bioenergetics", "lipids", "ecology", "Marine ecology", "21", "sharks", "basking"], "article_id"=>1039039, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Heidi R. Pethybridge", "Christopher C. Parrish", "Barry D. Bruce", "Jock W. Young", "Peter D. Nichols"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097877.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Collection_and_biological_information_of_the_21_white_sharks_WS_and_a_single_basking_shark_BS1_analyzed_in_this_study_/1039039", "title"=>"Collection and biological information of the 21 white sharks (WS) and a single basking shark (BS1) analyzed in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:01:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Gastroenterology and hepatology", "average_usage"=>[246]}]}
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