A Comparison of Facial Color Pattern and Gazing Behavior in Canid Species Suggests Gaze Communication in Gray Wolves (Canis lupus)
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{"title"=>"A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sayoko", "last_name"=>"Ueda", "scopus_author_id"=>"56233649000"}, {"first_name"=>"Gaku", "last_name"=>"Kumagai", "scopus_author_id"=>"56233395200"}, {"first_name"=>"Yusuke", "last_name"=>"Otaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"56233333200"}, {"first_name"=>"Shinya", "last_name"=>"Yamaguchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"56233659200"}, {"first_name"=>"Shiro", "last_name"=>"Kohshima", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603472519"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903388711", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0098217", "pui"=>"373399196", "sgr"=>"84903388711", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24918751"}, "id"=>"fc0eab5e-4a70-30d6-96a8-30afbd6cea79", "abstract"=>"As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparison-facial-color-pattern-gazing-behavior-canid-species-suggests-gaze-communication-gray-wolve", "reader_count"=>71, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Psychology"=>5, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>37}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "Hungary"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530463"], "description"=>"<p>All studied canid species had a dark-colored eyelid margin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Animal cognition", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Evolutionary biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Mammalogy", "Sociology", "communications", "parts"], "article_id"=>1053741, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sayoko Ueda", "Gaku Kumagai", "Yusuke Otaki", "Shinya Yamaguchi", "Shiro Kohshima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analyzed_parts_of_the_face_/1053741", "title"=>"Analyzed parts of the face.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:58:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530476"], "description"=>"<p>The mean duration time of the gazing behaviors differed significantly among the three study species (gray wolves, fennec foxes, and bush dogs, p = 0.005). The mean duration time of gazing behaviors was significantly longer in gray wolves than in bush dogs (p = 0.011, *: p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Animal cognition", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Evolutionary biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Mammalogy", "Sociology", "communications", "gazing", "behaviors", "focal"], "article_id"=>1053754, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sayoko Ueda", "Gaku Kumagai", "Yusuke Otaki", "Shinya Yamaguchi", "Shiro Kohshima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Duration_time_of_gazing_behaviors_in_the_three_focal_species_/1053754", "title"=>"Duration time of gazing behaviors in the three focal species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:58:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530470"], "description"=>"<p>The phylogenic tree is based on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217#pone.0098217-LindbladToh1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>. Three study species that were not examined in their report were categorized as follows: Bengal foxes into the red fox-like clade and dingoes and red wolves into the wolf-like clade. The proportion of facial color types differed significantly across clades of canid species (p = 0.030).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Animal cognition", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Evolutionary biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Mammalogy", "Sociology", "communications", "facial", "phylogeny", "canid"], "article_id"=>1053748, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sayoko Ueda", "Gaku Kumagai", "Yusuke Otaki", "Shinya Yamaguchi", "Shiro Kohshima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_the_facial_color_type_and_phylogeny_of_canid_species_/1053748", "title"=>"Relationship between the facial color type and phylogeny of canid species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:58:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530466"], "description"=>"<p>Images of gray wolf, fennec fox, and bush dog showed typical A-, B-, and C- type faces, respectively: in A-type, both the pupil position in the eye outline and the eye position in the face are conspicuous; in the B-type, only the eye position is conspicuous; and in C-type, both the pupil and eye position are inconspicuous.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Animal cognition", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Evolutionary biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Mammalogy", "Sociology", "communications", "types", "facial"], "article_id"=>1053744, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sayoko Ueda", "Gaku Kumagai", "Yusuke Otaki", "Shinya Yamaguchi", "Shiro Kohshima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_types_of_facial_color_pattern_/1053744", "title"=>"Three types of facial color pattern.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:58:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530478", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530479", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530480"], "description"=>"<div><p>As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Animal cognition", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Evolutionary biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Mammalogy", "Sociology", "communications", "facial", "gazing", "canid", "suggests", "wolves"], "article_id"=>1053756, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sayoko Ueda", "Gaku Kumagai", "Yusuke Otaki", "Shinya Yamaguchi", "Shiro Kohshima"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>14, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_Comparison_of_Facial_Color_Pattern_and_Gazing_Behavior_in_Canid_Species_Suggests_Gaze_Communication_in_Gray_Wolves_Canis_lupus_/1053756", "title"=>"A Comparison of Facial Color Pattern and Gazing Behavior in Canid Species Suggests Gaze Communication in Gray Wolves (<i>Canis lupus</i>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:58:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530474"], "description"=>"<p>Vertical bars indicate the standard deviation. Dotted lines indicate the average of the indices among all studied canid species. The four contrast indices did not significantly differ between group-living and solo/pair-living species. The contrast indices reflecting the lightness of iris color (IP and IE) of the group-hunting species were significantly higher than those of solo-hunting species (p = 0.029 for IP and p = 0.043 for IE, *: p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Animal cognition", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Evolutionary biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Mammalogy", "Sociology", "communications", "indices", "sociality", "studied", "canid"], "article_id"=>1053752, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sayoko Ueda", "Gaku Kumagai", "Yusuke Otaki", "Shinya Yamaguchi", "Shiro Kohshima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Difference_of_the_four_contrast_indices_on_average_in_sociality_and_in_hunting_behavior_of_the_studied_canid_species_/1053752", "title"=>"Difference of the four contrast indices on average in sociality and in hunting behavior of the studied canid species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:58:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530472"], "description"=>"<p>a) The proportion of facial color types differed significantly based on the sociality (p = 0.022), and the proportion of social types differed significantly between species with A-type faces and those with B-type faces (*: p<0.05). b) The proportion of facial color types differed marginally significant between the two types of hunting behaviors (p = 0.056).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Animal cognition", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Evolutionary biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Mammalogy", "Sociology", "communications", "facial", "types", "sociality", "studied", "canid"], "article_id"=>1053750, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sayoko Ueda", "Gaku Kumagai", "Yusuke Otaki", "Shinya Yamaguchi", "Shiro Kohshima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_facial_color_types_and_sociality_and_hunting_behavior_of_the_studied_canid_species_/1053750", "title"=>"Relationship between facial color types and sociality and hunting behavior of the studied canid species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:58:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530468"], "description"=>"<p>Mean values of the four contrast indices of the three focal species (gray wolves, fennec foxes, and bush dogs). Vertical bars indicate the standard deviation. Dotted lines show the mean values of indices among all studied canid species. Iris – Pupil contrast (IP) means the conspicuousness of the pupil position in the eye outline. Iris – Eyelid margin contrast (IE), Coat around eyes – Eyelid margin contrast (CE), and Coat around eyes – Facial coat contrast (CF) mean the conspicuousness of the eye position on the face.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Behavioral ecology", "neuroscience", "cognitive science", "cognition", "Animal cognition", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Evolutionary biology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "Mammalogy", "Sociology", "communications", "indices", "focal"], "article_id"=>1053746, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sayoko Ueda", "Gaku Kumagai", "Yusuke Otaki", "Shinya Yamaguchi", "Shiro Kohshima"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098217.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contrast_indices_of_the_three_focal_species_/1053746", "title"=>"Contrast indices of the three focal species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:58:07"}

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Relative Metric

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