Anthropogenic Litter in Urban Freshwater Ecosystems: Distribution and Microbial Interactions
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{"title"=>"Anthropogenic litter in urban freshwater ecosystems: Distribution and microbial interactions", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Timothy", "last_name"=>"Hoellein", "scopus_author_id"=>"18434214000"}, {"first_name"=>"Miguel", "last_name"=>"Rojas", "scopus_author_id"=>"54080340000"}, {"first_name"=>"Adam", "last_name"=>"Pink", "scopus_author_id"=>"56239311300"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Gasior", "scopus_author_id"=>"56239798800"}, {"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Kelly", "scopus_author_id"=>"57031069300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903542274", "pui"=>"373418757", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0098485", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84903542274", "pmid"=>"24955768"}, "id"=>"f32a7488-2167-37eb-885d-da48be4b5449", "abstract"=>"Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (i.e. garbage; AL) and its ecosystem effects in marine environments are well documented. Rivers receive AL from terrestrial habitats and represent a major source of AL to marine environments, but AL is rarely studied within freshwater ecosystems. Our objectives were to 1) quantify AL density in urban freshwaters, 2) compare AL abundance among freshwater, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems, and 3) characterize the activity and composition of AL biofilms in freshwater habitats. We quantified AL from the Chicago River and Chicago's Lake Michigan shoreline, and found that AL abundance in Chicago freshwater ecosystems was comparable to previously reported data for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, although AL density and composition differed among habitats. To assess microbial interactions with AL, we incubated AL and natural substrates in 3 freshwater ecosystems, quantified biofilm metabolism as gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR), and characterized biofilm bacterial community composition via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The main driver of biofilm community composition was incubation location (e.g., river vs pond), but there were some significant differences in biofilm composition and metabolism among substrates. For example, biofilms on organic substrates (cardboard and leaves) had lower GPP than hard substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum and tiles). In addition, bacterial communities on organic substrates were distinct in composition from those on hard substrates, with higher relative abundances of bacteria associated with cellulose decomposition. Finally, we used our results to develop a conceptual diagram designed to unite the study of AL in terrestrial and freshwater environments with the well-established field of marine debris research. We suggest this broad perspective will be useful for future studies which synthesize AL sources, ecosystem effects, and fate across multiple ecosystem types, and will benefit management and reduction of global AL accumulations.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/anthropogenic-litter-urban-freshwater-ecosystems-distribution-microbial-interactions", "reader_count"=>141, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>30, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>28, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Unspecified"=>10, "Environmental Science"=>51, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>62, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>62}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>51}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Denmark"=>2, "Brazil"=>2, "Malaysia"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547259"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (±SE) amounts of total anthropogenic litter (AL) in the benthic and riparian zones of the North Branch of the Chicago River and a Lake Michigan beach in Chicago, IL, USA by (A) abundance (number m<sup>−2</sup>), (B) mass (g m<sup>−2</sup>), (C) surface area (cm<sup>2</sup> m<sup>−2</sup>), and by individual categories including abundance of (D) plastic, (E) paper, and (F) glass.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "amounts", "anthropogenic", "litter", "benthic", "riparian", "zones", "chicago", "michigan", "usa", "abundance", "categories"], "article_id"=>1067758, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SE_amounts_of_total_anthropogenic_litter_AL_in_the_benthic_and_riparian_zones_of_the_North_Branch_of_the_Chicago_River_and_a_Lake_Michigan_beach_in_Chicago_IL_USA_by_A_abundance_number_m_8722_2_B_mass_g_m_8722_2_C_surface_area_cm_2_m_8722_2_and_by_i/1067758", "title"=>"Mean (±SE) amounts of total anthropogenic litter (AL) in the benthic and riparian zones of the North Branch of the Chicago River and a Lake Michigan beach in Chicago, IL, USA by (A) abundance (number m<sup>−2</sup>), (B) mass (g m<sup>−2</sup>), (C) surface area (cm<sup>2</sup> m<sup>−2</sup>), and by individual categories including abundance of (D) plastic, (E) paper, and (F) glass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547268"], "description"=>"<p>Data for marine beaches in (A) are from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485#pone.0098485-Ribic1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485#pone.0098485-Santos1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, and data for marine beaches in (B) are from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485#pone.0098485-Madzena1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485#pone.0098485-Claereboudt1\" target=\"_blank\">[26]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "anthropogenic", "litter", "beaches", "habitats", "benthic", "riparian", "zones", "chicago", "michigan"], "article_id"=>1067767, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Density_A_and_mass_B_of_anthropogenic_litter_AL_in_2_marine_beaches_and_in_3_habitats_from_this_study_benthic_and_riparian_zones_of_the_North_Branch_of_the_Chicago_River_and_a_Lake_Michigan_beach_/1067767", "title"=>"Density (A) and mass (B) of anthropogenic litter (AL) in 2 marine beaches and in 3 habitats from this study: benthic and riparian zones of the North Branch of the Chicago River and a Lake Michigan beach.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547275"], "description"=>"<p>The relative proportion of anthropogenic litter (AL) from our study in the Chicago area (in bold; developed lake beach, riparian zone, and river benthos) relative to city blocks in Argentina <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485#pone.0098485-SecoPon1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>, a developed marine beach in Brazil <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485#pone.0098485-Santos1\" target=\"_blank\">[23]</a>, a shallow marine benthos site in the Red Sea <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485#pone.0098485-AbuHilal1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a> and an offshore marine benthos site in the South Sea of Korea <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485#pone.0098485-Lee1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "anthropogenic", "litter", "chicago", "developed", "riparian", "blocks", "argentina", "brazil", "Benthos", "offshore", "korea"], "article_id"=>1067776, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_relative_proportion_of_anthropogenic_litter_AL_from_our_study_in_the_Chicago_area_in_bold_developed_lake_beach_riparian_zone_and_river_benthos_relative_to_city_blocks_in_Argentina_27_a_developed_marine_beach_in_Brazil_23_a_shallow_marine_benthos_site/1067776", "title"=>"The relative proportion of anthropogenic litter (AL) from our study in the Chicago area (in bold; developed lake beach, riparian zone, and river benthos) relative to city blocks in Argentina [27], a developed marine beach in Brazil [23], a shallow marine benthos site in the Red Sea [1] and an offshore marine benthos site in the South Sea of Korea [29].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547277"], "description"=>"<p>Mean (±SE) gross primary production and community respiration for biofilms colonizing natural substrates (unglazed ceramic tile and leaves) and anthropogenic litter substrates including glass, hard plastic, aluminum, and cardboard, incubated in artificial streams during summer 2012 (N = 18 date<sup>−1</sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "respiration", "biofilms", "colonizing", "substrates", "ceramic", "anthropogenic", "litter", "incubated", "streams", "2012"], "article_id"=>1067778, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SE_gross_primary_production_and_community_respiration_for_biofilms_colonizing_natural_substrates_unglazed_ceramic_tile_and_leaves_and_anthropogenic_litter_substrates_including_glass_hard_plastic_aluminum_and_cardboard_incubated_in_artificial_streams/1067778", "title"=>"Mean (±SE) gross primary production and community respiration for biofilms colonizing natural substrates (unglazed ceramic tile and leaves) and anthropogenic litter substrates including glass, hard plastic, aluminum, and cardboard, incubated in artificial streams during summer 2012 (N = 18 date<sup>−1</sup>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547286"], "description"=>"<p>Results (p-values) from 1-way ANOVA among substrates for each metric are shown in each panel, small letters indicate significant differences among substrates (p<0.05) as indicated by Tukey's multiple comparison test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "respiration", "biofilms", "colonizing", "substrates", "ceramic", "anthropogenic", "litter", "cardboard", "incubated", "chicago", "loyola", "substrate"], "article_id"=>1067781, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_177_SE_gross_primary_production_GPP_and_community_respiration_CR_for_biofilms_colonizing_natural_substrates_unglazed_ceramic_tile_and_leaves_and_anthropogenic_litter_substrates_including_glass_hard_plastic_aluminum_and_cardboard_incubated_in_A_North/1067781", "title"=>"Mean (±SE) gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR) for biofilms colonizing natural substrates (unglazed ceramic tile and leaves) and anthropogenic litter substrates including glass, hard plastic, aluminum, and cardboard incubated in (A) North Branch of the Chicago River, and (B) a pond at Loyola University Retreat and Ecology Campus (LUREC; N = 3 for each substrate at each site).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547288"], "description"=>"<p>Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordination of bacterial communities based on high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from biofilms colonizing anthropogenic litter (AL) substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum, and cardboard) and natural surfaces (leaves and tile) in artificial streams at Loyola University Chicago, the North Branch of the Chicago River, and a pond at Loyola University Retreat and Ecology Campus (LUREC).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "multidimensional", "scaling", "ordination", "bacterial", "communities", "high-throughput", "sequencing", "16s", "rrna", "genes", "biofilms", "colonizing", "anthropogenic", "litter", "substrates", "surfaces", "streams", "loyola", "chicago"], "article_id"=>1067783, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_metric_multidimensional_scaling_nMDS_ordination_of_bacterial_communities_based_on_high_throughput_sequencing_of_bacterial_16S_rRNA_genes_from_biofilms_colonizing_anthropogenic_litter_AL_substrates_glass_plastic_aluminum_and_cardboard_and_natural_surf/1067783", "title"=>"Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) ordination of bacterial communities based on high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from biofilms colonizing anthropogenic litter (AL) substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum, and cardboard) and natural surfaces (leaves and tile) in artificial streams at Loyola University Chicago, the North Branch of the Chicago River, and a pond at Loyola University Retreat and Ecology Campus (LUREC).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547293"], "description"=>"<p>Relative composition of bacteria phyla based on high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from biofilms colonizing anthropogenic litter (AL) substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum, and cardboard) and natural surfaces (leaves and tile) in artificial streams at Loyola University Chicago, the North Branch of the Chicago River, and a pond at Loyola University Retreat and Ecology Campus (LUREC).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "phyla", "high-throughput", "sequencing", "bacterial", "16s", "rrna", "genes", "biofilms", "colonizing", "anthropogenic", "litter", "substrates", "surfaces", "streams", "loyola", "chicago"], "article_id"=>1067788, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_composition_of_bacteria_phyla_based_on_high_throughput_sequencing_of_bacterial_16S_rRNA_genes_from_biofilms_colonizing_anthropogenic_litter_AL_substrates_glass_plastic_aluminum_and_cardboard_and_natural_surfaces_leaves_and_tile_in_artificial_str/1067788", "title"=>"Relative composition of bacteria phyla based on high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes from biofilms colonizing anthropogenic litter (AL) substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum, and cardboard) and natural surfaces (leaves and tile) in artificial streams at Loyola University Chicago, the North Branch of the Chicago River, and a pond at Loyola University Retreat and Ecology Campus (LUREC).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547301"], "description"=>"<p>This model unites the early stages of the AL “life cycle,” in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems to stages of accumulation and transformation in coastal and pelagic environments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "diagram", "pools", "fluxes", "anthropogenic", "litter", "modified"], "article_id"=>1067796, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conceptual_diagram_of_major_pools_and_fluxes_of_anthropogenic_litter_AL_in_terrestrial_freshwater_and_marine_ecosystems_modified_from_10_/1067796", "title"=>"Conceptual diagram of major pools and fluxes of anthropogenic litter (AL) in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems, modified from [10].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547326", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547327", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547328", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547329", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547330", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547331", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1547332"], "description"=>"<div><p>Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (i.e. garbage; AL) and its ecosystem effects in marine environments are well documented. Rivers receive AL from terrestrial habitats and represent a major source of AL to marine environments, but AL is rarely studied within freshwater ecosystems. Our objectives were to 1) quantify AL density in urban freshwaters, 2) compare AL abundance among freshwater, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems, and 3) characterize the activity and composition of AL biofilms in freshwater habitats. We quantified AL from the Chicago River and Chicago's Lake Michigan shoreline, and found that AL abundance in Chicago freshwater ecosystems was comparable to previously reported data for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, although AL density and composition differed among habitats. To assess microbial interactions with AL, we incubated AL and natural substrates in 3 freshwater ecosystems, quantified biofilm metabolism as gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR), and characterized biofilm bacterial community composition via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The main driver of biofilm community composition was incubation location (e.g., river vs pond), but there were some significant differences in biofilm composition and metabolism among substrates. For example, biofilms on organic substrates (cardboard and leaves) had lower GPP than hard substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum and tiles). In addition, bacterial communities on organic substrates were distinct in composition from those on hard substrates, with higher relative abundances of bacteria associated with cellulose decomposition. Finally, we used our results to develop a conceptual diagram designed to unite the study of AL in terrestrial and freshwater environments with the well-established field of marine debris research. We suggest this broad perspective will be useful for future studies which synthesize AL sources, ecosystem effects, and fate across multiple ecosystem types, and will benefit management and reduction of global AL accumulations.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Community Ecology", "community structure", "Freshwater ecology", "Marine ecology", "urban ecology", "geochemistry", "Biogeochemistry", "litter", "freshwater", "microbial"], "article_id"=>1067814, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Timothy Hoellein", "Miguel Rojas", "Adam Pink", "Joseph Gasior", "John Kelly"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098485.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Anthropogenic_Litter_in_Urban_Freshwater_Ecosystems_Distribution_and_Microbial_Interactions_/1067814", "title"=>"Anthropogenic Litter in Urban Freshwater Ecosystems: Distribution and Microbial Interactions", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 03:02:03"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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