Increasing Minimum Daily Temperatures Are Associated with Enhanced Pesticide Use in Cultivated Soybean along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Mid-Western United States
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{"title"=>"Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lewis H.", "last_name"=>"Ziska", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004672190"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903398404", "sgr"=>"84903398404", "pui"=>"373399005", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24918585", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0098516"}, "id"=>"29fbd037-2126-3b8d-98df-a33f01392804", "abstract"=>"Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum daily temperatures and potential increases in pest pressures.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/increasing-minimum-daily-temperatures-associated-enhanced-pesticide-cultivated-soybean-along-latitud", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"South Africa"=>1, "Nepal"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1531018"], "description"=>"<p>Symbols and regression determined as for <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516#pone-0098516-g001\" target=\"_blank\">figure 1</a>, but for herbicide use and total pesticide (insecticide, fungicide and herbicide) usage for soybean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Agroecology", "Pest control", "Atmospheric science", "regression", "herbicide", "pesticide", "fungicide", "usage"], "article_id"=>1054225, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lewis H. Ziska"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Symbols_and_regression_determined_as_for_figure_1_but_for_herbicide_use_and_total_pesticide_insecticide_fungicide_and_herbicide_usage_for_soybean_/1054225", "title"=>"Symbols and regression determined as for figure 1, but for herbicide use and total pesticide (insecticide, fungicide and herbicide) usage for soybean.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 03:07:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1531021"], "description"=>"<p>Slope of the regression line indicates the average increase in minimum temperature (°C) per year for each location.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Agroecology", "Pest control", "Atmospheric science", "recorded", "24", "northernmost", "southernmost", "states", "louisiana", "midwestern"], "article_id"=>1054228, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lewis H. Ziska"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Change_in_average_177_SE_minimum_temperature_lowest_recorded_temperature_for_a_24_h_period_during_a_given_calendar_year_for_four_locations_for_the_northernmost_and_southernmost_states_Minnesota_closed_circles_and_Louisiana_open_circles_used_in_the_Midwes/1054228", "title"=>"Change in average (±SE) minimum temperature (lowest recorded temperature for a 24 h period during a given calendar year for four locations) for the northernmost and southernmost states (Minnesota, closed circles) and Louisiana (open circles) used in the Midwestern transect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 03:07:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1531023"], "description"=>"<p>Values are the percent of all soybeans planted. Data are available at:</p><p><a href=\"http://www.usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/nass/Acre/2010s/2011/Acre-06-30-2011.pdf#page=27\" target=\"_blank\">www.usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/nass/Acre/2010s/2011/Acre-06-30-2011.pdf#page=27</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Agroecology", "Pest control", "Atmospheric science", "engineered", "soybean", "varieties", "herbicide", "states", "included", "north-south"], "article_id"=>1054230, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lewis H. Ziska"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetically_engineered_soybean_varieties_for_herbicide_tolerance_for_states_included_in_the_north_south_transect_/1054230", "title"=>"Genetically engineered soybean varieties for herbicide tolerance for states included in the north-south transect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 03:07:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1531024"], "description"=>"<p>Lists are generated by farmer surveys as reported by the Southern Weed Science Society (SWSS) for Louisiana (LA) and Missouri (MO) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516#pone.0098516-Southern1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a> and the University of Minnesota extension service for Minnesota (MN) (Frank Forcella, USDA-ARS Personal Communication). C<sub>3</sub>/C<sub>4</sub> refers to photosynthetic pathway.</p><p>*Indicates herbicide resistant populations within that state.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Agroecology", "Pest control", "Atmospheric science", "lists", "troublesome", "weed", "soybean", "states", "north-south"], "article_id"=>1054231, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lewis H. Ziska"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Top_ten_lists_of_most_troublesome_weed_species_in_soybean_for_three_states_along_the_North_South_transect_/1054231", "title"=>"Top ten lists of most troublesome weed species in soybean for three states along the North-South transect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 03:07:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1531026"], "description"=>"<p>Soybean area is given as hectares (*1000), average yield was determined from 2009–2013 as metric tons (MT) per hectare, the T<sub>min</sub> is the increase in minimal daily (24 h) temperature (°C) per decade (determined from 1977–2013). The r value is the correlation coefficient of T<sub>min</sub> over time, with P<0.05, *; P<0.01, ** and P<.001, ***. The values for insecticide, fungicide and herbicide are determined for 2023 (10 year projection) using the functions for <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516#pone-0098516-g001\" target=\"_blank\">figures 1</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516#pone-0098516-g003\" target=\"_blank\">3</a> and are shown as changes in grams of active ingredient (ai) per hectare, with a value of zero indicating no change in application rates over 2013 levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Agroecology", "Pest control", "Atmospheric science", "included", "latitudinal"], "article_id"=>1054233, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lewis H. Ziska"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_States_included_in_the_latitudinal_transect_/1054233", "title"=>"States included in the latitudinal transect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 03:07:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1531015"], "description"=>"<p>Minimum temperatures were determined as the lowest recorded temperature for a 24“best fit” second order polynomial. Bars are ±SE. See Methods for additional details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Agroecology", "Pest control", "Atmospheric science", "averaged", "insecticide", "fungicide", "usage", "years", "north-south", "transect", "midwestern", "states", "soybean"], "article_id"=>1054223, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lewis H. Ziska"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098516.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Minimum_temperature_by_state_averaged_for_the_period_1999_8211_2013_as_a_function_of_insecticide_and_fungicide_usage_kg_active_ingredient_ai_per_hectare_as_determined_from_the_National_Agricultural_Statistical_Service_survey_for_the_years_1999_2000_2001_/1054223", "title"=>"Minimum temperature by state averaged for the period 1999–2013 as a function of insecticide and fungicide usage (kg active ingredient, ai, per hectare) as determined from the National Agricultural Statistical Service survey for the years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2012) for a north-south transect of seven Midwestern states where commercial soybean is grown.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 03:07:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Agriculture", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Atmospheric science", "average_usage"=>[295]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Geographical locations", "average_usage"=>[298]}]}
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