Honey Bee Apis mellifera Parasites in the Absence of Nosema ceranae Fungi and Varroa destructor Mites
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{"title"=>"Honey bee Apis mellifera parasites in the absence of Nosema ceranae fungi and Varroa destructor mites", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dave", "last_name"=>"Shutler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004173963"}, {"first_name"=>"Krista", "last_name"=>"Head", "scopus_author_id"=>"37079179000"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen L.", "last_name"=>"Burgher-MacLellan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507063517"}, {"first_name"=>"Megan J.", "last_name"=>"Colwell", "scopus_author_id"=>"56241594100"}, {"first_name"=>"Abby L.", "last_name"=>"Levitt", "scopus_author_id"=>"37093343200"}, {"first_name"=>"Nancy", "last_name"=>"Ostiguy", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507012856"}, {"first_name"=>"Geoffrey R.", "last_name"=>"Williams", "scopus_author_id"=>"23471056500"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903648300", "sgr"=>"84903648300", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0098599", "pmid"=>"24955834", "pui"=>"373429035"}, "id"=>"9212cef5-c6ba-3365-90f2-27098258b48a", "abstract"=>"Few areas of the world have western honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies that are free of invasive parasites Nosema ceranae (fungi) and Varroa destructor (mites). Particularly detrimental is V. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. Thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of V. destructor are of significant interest. The island of Newfoundland, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is free of V. destructor; the absence of N. ceranae has not been confirmed. Of 55 Newfoundland colonies inspected visually for their strength and six signs of disease, only K-wing had prevalence above 5% (40/55 colonies = 72.7%). Similar to an earlier study, screenings again confirmed the absence of V. destructor, small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Murray), tracheal mites Acarapis woodi (Rennie), and Tropilaelaps spp. ectoparasitic mites. Of a subset of 23 colonies screened molecularly for viruses, none had Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, or sacbrood virus. Sixteen of 23 colonies (70.0%) were positive for black queen cell virus, and 21 (91.3%) had some evidence for deformed wing virus. No N. ceranae was detected in molecular screens of 55 colonies, although it is possible extremely low intensity infections exist; the more familiar N. apis was found in 53 colonies (96.4%). Under these conditions, K-wing was associated (positively) with colony strength; however, viruses and N. apis were not. Furthermore, black queen cell virus was positively and negatively associated with K-wing and deformed wing virus, respectively. Newfoundland honey bee colonies are thus free of several invasive parasites that plague operations in other parts of the world, and they provide a unique research arena to study independent pathology of the parasites that are present.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/honey-bee-apis-mellifera-parasites-absence-nosema-ceranae-fungi-varroa-destructor-mites", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>45, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>45}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1546797"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency distributions of honey bee colony strength measures.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal performance", "biotechnology", "Applied microbiology", "ecology", "biodiversity", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary microbiology", "Pathology and laboratory medicine", "pathogenesis", "Host-pathogen interactions", "distributions"], "article_id"=>1067361, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dave Shutler", "Krista Head", "Karen L. Burgher-MacLellan", "Megan J. Colwell", "Abby L. Levitt", "Nancy Ostiguy", "Geoffrey R. Williams"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098599.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distributions_of_honey_bee_colony_strength_measures_/1067361", "title"=>"Frequency distributions of honey bee colony strength measures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 02:53:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1546799"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of <i>Nosema apis</i> infection intensities among honey bee colonies (excluding two colonies that were negative).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal performance", "biotechnology", "Applied microbiology", "ecology", "biodiversity", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary microbiology", "Pathology and laboratory medicine", "pathogenesis", "Host-pathogen interactions", "intensities", "colonies"], "article_id"=>1067363, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dave Shutler", "Krista Head", "Karen L. Burgher-MacLellan", "Megan J. Colwell", "Abby L. Levitt", "Nancy Ostiguy", "Geoffrey R. Williams"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098599.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_Nosema_apis_infection_intensities_among_honey_bee_colonies_excluding_two_colonies_that_were_negative_/1067363", "title"=>"Distribution of <i>Nosema apis</i> infection intensities among honey bee colonies (excluding two colonies that were negative).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 02:53:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1546800"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are interquartile range (box), median (horizontal line within interquartile range), and data range (vertical lines). Statistics are reported in the text.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal performance", "biotechnology", "Applied microbiology", "ecology", "biodiversity", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary microbiology", "Pathology and laboratory medicine", "pathogenesis", "Host-pathogen interactions", "pc", "pca"], "article_id"=>1067365, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dave Shutler", "Krista Head", "Karen L. Burgher-MacLellan", "Megan J. Colwell", "Abby L. Levitt", "Nancy Ostiguy", "Geoffrey R. Williams"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098599.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_between_COLONY_STRENGTH_scores_from_a_first_PC_from_a_PCA_of_seven_measures_see_Fig_1_and_K_wing_/1067365", "title"=>"Relationships between COLONY STRENGTH (scores from a first PC from a PCA of seven measures; see Fig. 1) and K-wing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 02:53:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1546804"], "description"=>"<p>Two tubes were obtained from each colony for initial identification; these were each analysed twice for a total of four PCRs per colony. If both tubes were positive, relative gene expression is provided for both.</p>1<p>A DWV band was obtained in the earlier gel, but not in a later gel; possibly sample degradation. Sequencing not attempted.</p>2<p>One of two samples from the colony was positive for DWV in both analysis; DWV presence confirmed in second analysis.</p>3<p>RT-PCR was negative for DWV in both first and second gel but RT-qPCR showed very low levels of DWV. Sample was not sequenced; thus DWV presence was not confirmed.</p>4<p>No DWV bands were obtained in the first analysis, but one band was obtained in the second analysis, and presence was confirmed by sequencing.</p>5<p>In one of two sample, no DWV band was obtained in the first analysis, but a band was obtained in the second analysis, and presence was confirmed by sequencing. Second sample from this colony was positive both times.</p>6<p>DWV bands were obtained in the first gel for both colonies NF103 and NF112 but one of the two bands was faint for each colony; in the second analysis no band was observed from the sample with a faint band. The second analysis confirmed DWV was present (by sequencing) in both colonies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal performance", "biotechnology", "Applied microbiology", "ecology", "biodiversity", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary microbiology", "Pathology and laboratory medicine", "pathogenesis", "Host-pathogen interactions", "pcr", "sequencing", "deformed"], "article_id"=>1067367, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dave Shutler", "Krista Head", "Karen L. Burgher-MacLellan", "Megan J. Colwell", "Abby L. Levitt", "Nancy Ostiguy", "Geoffrey R. Williams"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098599.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_PCR_and_subsequent_sequencing_of_PCR_products_positive_for_deformed_wing_virus_DWV_/1067367", "title"=>"Results of PCR and subsequent sequencing of PCR products positive for deformed wing virus (DWV).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 02:53:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1546806"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are <i>F</i>-statistics for variables left in General Linear Mixed Models (with operation as a random effect) after sequential removal of non-significant associations. Signs indicate whether associations were antagonistic (−) or synergistic (+).</p><p>*P<0.05,</p><p>**P<0.01.</p><p>NE denotes not entered in saturated model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal performance", "biotechnology", "Applied microbiology", "ecology", "biodiversity", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary microbiology", "Pathology and laboratory medicine", "pathogenesis", "Host-pathogen interactions", "signs"], "article_id"=>1067370, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dave Shutler", "Krista Head", "Karen L. Burgher-MacLellan", "Megan J. Colwell", "Abby L. Levitt", "Nancy Ostiguy", "Geoffrey R. Williams"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098599.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_among_signs_of_disease_and_parasites_/1067370", "title"=>"Associations among signs of disease and parasites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 02:53:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1546808"], "description"=>"<p>Primers used for virus diagnosis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal performance", "biotechnology", "Applied microbiology", "ecology", "biodiversity", "microbiology", "Virology", "co-infections", "Parasitology", "Veterinary science", "Veterinary microbiology", "Pathology and laboratory medicine", "pathogenesis", "Host-pathogen interactions"], "article_id"=>1067372, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Dave Shutler", "Krista Head", "Karen L. Burgher-MacLellan", "Megan J. Colwell", "Abby L. Levitt", "Nancy Ostiguy", "Geoffrey R. Williams"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098599.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_used_for_virus_diagnosis_/1067372", "title"=>"Primers used for virus diagnosis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-23 02:53:59"}

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