Categorical Biases in Perceiving Spatial Relations
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{"title"=>"Categorical biases in perceiving spatial relations", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alexander", "last_name"=>"Kranjec", "scopus_author_id"=>"34880327100"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary", "last_name"=>"Lupyan", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504431249"}, {"first_name"=>"Anjan", "last_name"=>"Chatterjee", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403038338"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373194699", "sgr"=>"84901624761", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24870560", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84901624761", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0098604"}, "id"=>"4a099ad1-5a97-3aee-89f3-d93aad6e1293", "abstract"=>"We investigate the effect of spatial categories on visual perception. In three experiments, participants made same/different judgments on pairs of simultaneously presented dot-cross configurations. For different trials, the position of the dot within each cross could differ with respect to either categorical spatial relations (the dots occupied different quadrants) or coordinate spatial relations (the dots occupied different positions within the same quadrant). The dot-cross configurations also varied in how readily the dot position could be lexicalized. In harder-to-name trials, crosses formed a \"+\" shape such that each quadrant was associated with two discrete lexicalized spatial categories (e.g., \"above\" and \"left\"). In easier-to-name trials, both crosses were rotated 45° to form an \"×\" shape such that quadrants were unambiguously associated with a single lexicalized spatial category (e.g., \"above\" or \"left\"). In Experiment 1, participants were more accurate when discriminating categorical information between easier-to-name categories and more accurate at discriminating coordinate spatial information within harder-to-name categories. Subsequent experiments attempted to down-regulate or up-regulate the involvement of language in task performance. Results from Experiment 2 (verbal interference) and Experiment 3 (verbal training) suggest that the observed spatial relation type-by-nameability interaction is resistant to online language manipulations previously shown to affect color and object-based perceptual processing. The results across all three experiments suggest that robust biases in the visual perception of spatial relations correlate with patterns of lexicalization, but do not appear to be modulated by language online.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/categorical-biases-perceiving-spatial-relations", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512688"], "description"=>"<p>(A) In <i>harder-to-name</i> trials each quadrant was associated with two spatial prepositions (e.g. <i>above</i> AND <i>left</i>). (B) In <i>easier-to-name</i> trials each quadrant was unambiguously associated with a discrete spatial preposition (e.g. <i>above</i> OR <i>left</i>). (C) For <i>verbal training</i> in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0098604#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Experiment 3</a>, each of the four positions corresponding to the “×” partition (not shown during training) was valid for a single label (<i>above</i>, <i>below</i>, <i>left</i>, or <i>right</i>). Each of the four positions corresponding to the “+” partition was valid for two labels (<i>above </i>and <i>right</i>, <i>above </i>and <i>left</i>, <i>below </i>and <i>right</i>, or <i>below </i>and <i>left</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Sensory perception", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Experimental psychology", "research design", "Survey research", "Survey methods", "linguistics", "Sociology", "communications", "easier-to-name", "spatial"], "article_id"=>1039248, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Alexander Kranjec", "Gary Lupyan", "Anjan Chatterjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098604.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Harder_vs_easier_to_name_spatial_categories_/1039248", "title"=>"Harder vs. easier-to-name spatial categories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512691"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Overall % accuracy for all different trials. (B) Nameability advantage (easier-to-name trials minus harder-to-name trials). A positive difference score indicates an advantage on easier-to-name trials; a negative score indicates a disadvantage on easier-to-name trials. Error bars represent 1SE of the mean difference between easier-to-name and harder-to-name trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Sensory perception", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Experimental psychology", "research design", "Survey research", "Survey methods", "linguistics", "Sociology", "communications"], "article_id"=>1039251, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Alexander Kranjec", "Gary Lupyan", "Anjan Chatterjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098604.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Accuracy_results_for_Experiment_3_verbal_training_/1039251", "title"=>"Accuracy results for Experiment 3 (verbal training).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512689"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Overall % accuracy for all different trials. (B) Nameability advantage (easier-to-name trials minus harder-to-name trials). A positive difference score indicates an advantage on easier-to-name trials; a negative score indicates a disadvantage on easier-to-name trials. Error bars represent 1SE of the mean difference between easier-to-name and harder-to-name trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Sensory perception", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Experimental psychology", "research design", "Survey research", "Survey methods", "linguistics", "Sociology", "communications"], "article_id"=>1039249, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Alexander Kranjec", "Gary Lupyan", "Anjan Chatterjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098604.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Accuracy_results_for_Experiment_1_/1039249", "title"=>"Accuracy results for Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512690"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Overall % accuracy for all different trials. (B) Nameability advantage (easier-to-name trials minus harder-to-name trials). A positive difference score indicates an advantage on easier-to-name trials; a negative score indicates a disadvantage on easier-to-name trials. Error bars represent 1SE of the mean difference between easier-to-name and harder-to-name trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Sensory perception", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Experimental psychology", "research design", "Survey research", "Survey methods", "linguistics", "Sociology", "communications"], "article_id"=>1039250, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Alexander Kranjec", "Gary Lupyan", "Anjan Chatterjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098604.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Accuracy_results_for_Experiment_2_visual_vs_verbal_interference_/1039250", "title"=>"Accuracy results for Experiment 2 (visual vs. verbal interference).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:29:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1512687"], "description"=>"<p>Two dot-cross grids were displayed simultaneously to the left and right of central fixation. In the actual experiments, the dot was red and appeared an equal number of times in each of the 4 quadrants across all trials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Sensory systems", "Visual system", "Sensory perception", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Experimental psychology", "research design", "Survey research", "Survey methods", "linguistics", "Sociology", "communications", "types"], "article_id"=>1039247, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Alexander Kranjec", "Gary Lupyan", "Anjan Chatterjee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098604.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_the_four_types_of_8220_different_8221_trials_/1039247", "title"=>"Examples of the four types of “different” trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-05-28 03:29:00"}

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Relative Metric

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