A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Japanese Encephalitis in Mainland China, 1963–1975: A Period without Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination
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{"title"=>"A spatial and temporal analysis of Japanese encephalitis in mainland China, 1963-1975: A period without Japanese encephalitis vaccination", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Xiaolong", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56209309700"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaoyan", "last_name"=>"Gao", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403872818"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhoupeng", "last_name"=>"Ren", "scopus_author_id"=>"56123291900"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuxi", "last_name"=>"Cao", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404524589"}, {"first_name"=>"Jinfeng", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55868825200"}, {"first_name"=>"Guodong", "last_name"=>"Liang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202631120"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0099183", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84902590383", "pui"=>"373338029", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84902590383", "pmid"=>"24911168", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"5ad2f1c4-6a1e-3d94-b9cf-4b243c050fe4", "abstract"=>"More than a million Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases occurred in mainland China from the 1960s to 1970s without vaccine interventions. The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial and temporal pattern of JE cases reported in mainland China from 1965 to 1973 in the absence of JE vaccination, and to discuss the impacts of climatic and geographical factors on JE during that period. Thus, the data of reported JE cases at provincial level and monthly precipitation and monthly mean temperature from 1963 to 1975 in mainland China were collected. Local Indicators of Spatial Association analysis was performed to identify spatial clusters at the province level. During that period, The epidemic peaked in 1966 and 1971 and the JE incidence reached up to 20.58/100000 and 20.92/100000, respectively. The endemic regions can be divided into three classes including high, medium, and low prevalence regions. Through spatial cluster analysis, JE epidemic hot spots were identified; most were located in the Yangtze River Plain which lies in the southeast of China. In addition, JE incidence was shown to vary among eight geomorphic units in China. Also, the JE incidence in the Loess Plateau and the North China Plain was showed to increase with the rise of temperature. Likewise, JE incidence in the Loess Plateau and the Yangtze River Plain was observed a same trend with the increase of rainfall. In conclusion, the JE cases clustered geographically during the epidemic period. Besides, the JE incidence was markedly higher on the plains than plateaus. These results may provide an insight into the epidemiological characteristics of JE in the absence of vaccine interventions and assist health authorities, both in China and potentially in Europe and Americas, in JE prevention and control strategies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/spatial-temporal-analysis-japanese-encephalitis-mainland-china-19631975-period-without-japanese-ence-1", "reader_count"=>21, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1527403"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Comparison of the JE incidence in different geomorphic units shows that JE incidence in the plains was higher than that in the plateaus during 1963–1975. (B) The differences among eight geomorphic units in JE incidence and summer rainfall in 1971. There were no JE reported cases in the QTP and the IMP in 1971. Due to the affection of the southwest monsoon in summer, the YGP shows abundant summer rainfall. (C) The differences among eight geomorphic units in JE incidence and summer temperature in 1971. The summer temperature in the QTP was below 10°C in 1971 because of its high altitude (4000–5000 m).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious diseases of the nervous system", "encephalitis", "Japanese encephalitis", "Viral diseases", "Public and occupational health", "disease ecology", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "japanese", "geomorphic"], "article_id"=>1051360, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaolong Li", "Xiaoyan Gao", "Zhoupeng Ren", "Yuxi Cao", "Jinfeng Wang", "Guodong Liang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099183.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Climatic_factors_and_Japanese_encephalitis_in_different_geomorphic_units_/1051360", "title"=>"Climatic factors and Japanese encephalitis in different geomorphic units.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-09 03:38:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1527411"], "description"=>"<p>QTP: the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; LP: the Loess Plateau; YGP: the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau; IMP: the Inner Mongolian Plateau; NECP: the Northeast China Plain; NCP: the North China Plain; YRP: the Yangtze River Plain; PRDP: the Pearl River Delta Plain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious diseases of the nervous system", "encephalitis", "Japanese encephalitis", "Viral diseases", "Public and occupational health", "disease ecology", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "geomorphic"], "article_id"=>1051368, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaolong Li", "Xiaoyan Gao", "Zhoupeng Ren", "Yuxi Cao", "Jinfeng Wang", "Guodong Liang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099183.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>20, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Japanese_encephalitis_in_different_geomorphic_units_1963_8211_1975_/1051368", "title"=>"Japanese encephalitis in different geomorphic units, 1963–1975.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-09 03:38:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1527399"], "description"=>"<p>(A) China experienced a natural JE epidemic period with no vaccine interventions from 1963 to 1975. The bar graph of JE incidence in mainland China from 1951 to 2008 is cited from reference 10. (B) During the JE epidemic in 1971, JE incidence in 11 provinces distributed in the coastal areas of eastern China (red color) was higher than the national average (20.92/100,000). (C) LISA cluster map for JE incidence during 1963–1975 shows the center of cluster in color. High-High indicates a significant (<i>P</i><0.05) spatial cluster of high JE incidence values; Low-Low represents a spatial cluster of low JE incidence values. <b>Symbols</b>: HLJ: Heilongjiang; JL: Jilin; LN: Liaoning; NMG: Inner Mongolia; BJ: Beijing; TJ: Tianjin; HB: Hebei: HN: Henan; SD: Shandong; SX: Shanxi; SaX: Shaanxi; NX: Ningxia; GS: Gansu; QH: Qinghai; XJ: Xinjiang; XZ: Tibet; SC: Sichuan; YN: Yunnan; GZ: Guizhou; GX: Guangxi; GD: Guangdong; GX: Guangxi; HuN: Hunan; HuB: Hubei; JX: Jiangxi; JS: Jiangsu; ZJ: Zhejiang; AH: Anhui; FJ: Fujian; SH: Shanghai; TW: Taiwan.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious diseases of the nervous system", "encephalitis", "Japanese encephalitis", "Viral diseases", "Public and occupational health", "disease ecology", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "mainland", "china"], "article_id"=>1051356, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaolong Li", "Xiaoyan Gao", "Zhoupeng Ren", "Yuxi Cao", "Jinfeng Wang", "Guodong Liang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099183.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Japanese_encephalitis_in_mainland_China_during_1963_8211_1975_/1051356", "title"=>"Japanese encephalitis in mainland China during 1963–1975.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-09 03:38:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1527394"], "description"=>"<p>Region 1 represents the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP); Region 2 represents the Loess Plateau (LP); Region 3 represents the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP); Region 4 represents the Inner Mongolian Plateau (IMP); Region 5 represents the Northeast China Plain (NECP); Region 6 represents the North China Plain (NCP); Region 7 represents the Yangtze River Plain (YRP); Region 8 represents the Pearl River Delta Plain (PRDP).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious diseases of the nervous system", "encephalitis", "Japanese encephalitis", "Viral diseases", "Public and occupational health", "disease ecology", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "geomorphic", "units", "included"], "article_id"=>1051354, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaolong Li", "Xiaoyan Gao", "Zhoupeng Ren", "Yuxi Cao", "Jinfeng Wang", "Guodong Liang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099183.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Division_of_geomorphic_units_included_in_this_study_/1051354", "title"=>"Division of geomorphic units included in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-09 03:38:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1527410"], "description"=>"<p>The correlations of summer rainfall and summer temperature with JE incidence varied among different geomorphic units. A) the Loess Plateau; B) the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau; C) the North China Plain; D) the Yangtze River Plain; E) the Northeast China Plain.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "epidemiology", "Infectious disease epidemiology", "Spatial epidemiology", "Infectious diseases", "Infectious diseases of the nervous system", "encephalitis", "Japanese encephalitis", "Viral diseases", "Public and occupational health", "disease ecology", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "climatic", "japanese", "geomorphic"], "article_id"=>1051367, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Xiaolong Li", "Xiaoyan Gao", "Zhoupeng Ren", "Yuxi Cao", "Jinfeng Wang", "Guodong Liang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099183.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_climatic_factors_and_Japanese_encephalitis_in_different_geomorphic_units_/1051367", "title"=>"Correlations between climatic factors and Japanese encephalitis in different geomorphic units.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-09 03:38:34"}

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