The Perception and Mimicry of Facial Movements Predict Judgments of Smile Authenticity
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{"title"=>"The perception and mimicry of facial movements predict judgments of smile authenticity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sebastian", "last_name"=>"Korb", "scopus_author_id"=>"23970914300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stéphane", "last_name"=>"With", "scopus_author_id"=>"54891550600"}, {"first_name"=>"Paula", "last_name"=>"Niedenthal", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004698490"}, {"first_name"=>"Susanne", "last_name"=>"Kaiser", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103104575"}, {"first_name"=>"Didier", "last_name"=>"Grandjean", "scopus_author_id"=>"35302551600"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903386115", "sgr"=>"84903386115", "pui"=>"373399049", "pmid"=>"24918939", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0099194"}, "id"=>"4b2b1ef7-f9ca-39a0-b4b5-c917d34118c6", "abstract"=>"The mechanisms through which people perceive different types of smiles and judge their authenticity remain unclear. Here, 19 different types of smiles were created based on the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), using highly controlled, dynamic avatar faces. Participants observed short videos of smiles while their facial mimicry was measured with electromyography (EMG) over four facial muscles. Smile authenticity was judged after each trial. Avatar attractiveness was judged once in response to each avatar’s neutral face. Results suggest that, in contrast to most earlier work using static pictures as stimuli, participants relied less on the Duchenne marker (the presence of crow’s feet wrinkles around the eyes) in their judgments of authenticity. Furthermore, mimicry of smiles occurred in the Zygomaticus Major, Orbicularis Oculi, and Corrugator muscles. Consistent with theories of embodied cognition, activity in these muscles predicted authenticity judgments, suggesting that facial mimicry influences the perception of smiles. However, no significant mediation effect of facial mimicry was found. Avatar attractiveness did not predict authenticity judgments or mimicry patterns. Citation:", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/perception-mimicry-facial-movements-predict-judgments-smile-authenticity", "reader_count"=>79, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>18, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Psychology"=>45, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>45}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "China"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Portugal"=>2, "Germany"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530555"], "description"=>"<p>The leading factor in making a smile appear authentic was the intensity of AU12, as evident in the two vertically stacked clusters of lines on the graph. Importantly, although the degree of AU6 activation increased perceived authenticity, it did so in interaction with AU12 and AU25&26.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "resulted", "triple"], "article_id"=>1053819, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastian Korb", "Stéphane With", "Paula Niedenthal", "Susanne Kaiser", "Didier Grandjean"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratings_of_authenticity_which_resulted_in_a_triple_interaction_/1053819", "title"=>"Ratings of authenticity, which resulted in a triple interaction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530567"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes</i>:*p<.05.</p><p>**p<.01.</p><p>***p<.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "contrasts", "hoc", "comparisons", "involving", "types"], "article_id"=>1053831, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastian Korb", "Stéphane With", "Paula Niedenthal", "Susanne Kaiser", "Didier Grandjean"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Planned_contrasts_P_and_post_hoc_comparisons_involving_the_5_selected_types_of_smiles_/1053831", "title"=>"Planned contrasts (P) and post hoc comparisons involving the 5 selected types of smiles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530563"], "description"=>"<p>A Stimulus X Muscle X Time ANOVA resulted in a significant Stimulus X Muscle interaction (see main text for details, and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194#pone-0099194-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> for post-hoc tests). CS = Corrugator Supercilii, OC = Orbicularis Oculi, ZM = Zygomaticus Major, MA = Masseter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "emg", "sampled", "averaged", "epoch"], "article_id"=>1053827, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastian Korb", "Stéphane With", "Paula Niedenthal", "Susanne Kaiser", "Didier Grandjean"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_and_standard_error_EMG_for_the_four_sampled_muscles_across_five_stimulus_sub_types_averaged_over_the_entire_epoch_after_SO_/1053827", "title"=>"Average (and standard error) EMG for the four sampled muscles, across five stimulus sub-types, averaged over the entire epoch after SO.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530545"], "description"=>"<p>Smiling in the stimulus significantly predicted both smiling in the participant (a) and perceived authenticity (c). Moreover, authenticity was predicted by smiling in the participant (b). However, no clear signs of mediation (path c’</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "smiling", "mediation", "facial"], "article_id"=>1053809, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastian Korb", "Stéphane With", "Paula Niedenthal", "Susanne Kaiser", "Didier Grandjean"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagrams_of_1_expected_effects_of_smiling_intensity_in_the_stimulus_on_perceived_smile_authenticity_and_2_mediation_of_this_effect_by_participants_8217_facial_mimicry_/1053809", "title"=>"Diagrams of 1) expected effects of smiling intensity in the stimulus on perceived smile authenticity, and 2) mediation of this effect by participants’ facial mimicry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530542"], "description"=>"<p>An additional 19<sup>th</sup> Mixed smile (lower right of the figure) was created by adding activation of the Corrugator (AU1&4) to weak smiles.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "apex", "18", "types", "created", "varying", "activation", "zygomaticus", "orbicularis", "oculi", "lips"], "article_id"=>1053806, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastian Korb", "Stéphane With", "Paula Niedenthal", "Susanne Kaiser", "Didier Grandjean"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>425, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Representation_of_the_apex_of_the_18_different_types_of_smiles_which_were_created_by_varying_the_activation_intensity_of_3_muscle_region_factors_Zygomaticus_AU12_Orbicularis_Oculi_AU6_Mouth_and_lips_opening_AU25_amp_26_/1053806", "title"=>"Representation of the apex of the 18 different types of smiles, which were created by varying the activation intensity of 3 muscle region factors: Zygomaticus (AU12), Orbicularis Oculi (AU6), Mouth and lips opening (AU25&26).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530551"], "description"=>"<p>Data on the x-axis was jittered to improve display.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "smiling", "judgments"], "article_id"=>1053816, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastian Korb", "Stéphane With", "Paula Niedenthal", "Susanne Kaiser", "Didier Grandjean"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intensity_of_smiling_in_the_stimulus_significantly_predicted_judgments_of_authenticity_/1053816", "title"=>"Intensity of smiling in the stimulus significantly predicted judgments of authenticity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530565"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>.***p<.001;</p><p>**p<.01;</p><p>*p<.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "rmanova", "authenticity", "ratings"], "article_id"=>1053829, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastian Korb", "Stéphane With", "Paula Niedenthal", "Susanne Kaiser", "Didier Grandjean"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_the_rmANOVA_on_Authenticity_ratings_with_factors_AU12_AU25_amp_26_and_AU6_/1053829", "title"=>"Results of the rmANOVA on Authenticity ratings with factors AU12, AU25&26, and AU6.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:59:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1530564"], "description"=>"<p>Activation of involved Action Units (AUs), Smile-Stimulus scores and average authenticity rating, for the 19 stimulus types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "units", "smile-stimulus", "scores", "authenticity", "19"], "article_id"=>1053828, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Sebastian Korb", "Stéphane With", "Paula Niedenthal", "Susanne Kaiser", "Didier Grandjean"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099194.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_of_involved_Action_Units_AUs_Smile_Stimulus_scores_and_average_authenticity_rating_for_the_19_stimulus_types_/1053828", "title"=>"Activation of involved Action Units (AUs), Smile-Stimulus scores and average authenticity rating, for the 19 stimulus types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-11 02:59:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[307]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[329]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}]}
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