The Future of Large Old Trees in Urban Landscapes
Publication Date
June 18, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Darren S. Le Roux, Karen Ikin, David B. Lindenmayer, Adrian D. Manning, et al
Volume
9
Issue
6
Pages
e99403
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0099403
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24941258
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4062419
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24941258
Web of Science
000338508200022
Scopus
84903289139
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/future-large-old-trees-urban-landscapes
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539024"], "description"=>"<p>Simple schematic highlighting the five principle steps of our simulation model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "schematic", "highlighting", "steps", "simulation"], "article_id"=>1060979, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simple_schematic_highlighting_the_five_principle_steps_of_our_simulation_model_/1060979", "title"=>"Simple schematic highlighting the five principle steps of our simulation model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539027"], "description"=>"<p>Variables include: the maximum standing life of trees (A); the number of seedlings ha<sup>−1</sup> (B); and the rate of hollow formation (represented by the coefficient for the probability of hollow occurrence; C). Predicted thresholds under existing management practices are provided for reference (solid circles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "greenspace", "300", "years", "variables", "sizes", "derived"], "article_id"=>1060982, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_predicted_relative_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_mean_177_95_prediction_intervals_in_urban_greenspace_over_300_years_for_a_range_of_values_for_variables_with_the_greatest_relative_effect_sizes_derived_from_a_sensitivity_analysis_/1060982", "title"=>"The predicted relative number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> (mean ±95 prediction intervals) in urban greenspace over 300 years for a range of values for variables with the greatest relative effect sizes derived from a sensitivity analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539029"], "description"=>"<p>Simulated scenarios include: increasing the standing life of trees only up to 500 years; increasing the number of seedlings only up to 60 ha<sup>−1</sup>; accelerating hollow formation only by 62% above the observed mean rate (as represented by the coefficient for the probability of hollow occurrence); and a combined management approach (i.e. our recommended management proposal), which manipulates all three variables simultaneously. Scenarios under existing management practices are provided for reference by solid black lines for nature reserves (1) and urban greenspace (2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "300", "years", "scenarios"], "article_id"=>1060984, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_predicted_relative_mean_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_over_300_years_under_a_series_of_alternative_urban_tree_management_scenarios_dashed_lines_/1060984", "title"=>"The predicted relative mean number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> over 300 years under a series of alternative urban tree management scenarios (dashed lines).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539030"], "description"=>"<p>Relative values are derived from raw vegetation data or, where applicable, published estimates. Urban management recommendations, derived from a series of simulated alternative management strategies, are indicated for variables identified as being the most ecologically important from a sensitivity analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "parameterise", "simulation", "practices", "reserves"], "article_id"=>1060985, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summarised_values_for_each_variable_used_to_parameterise_our_simulation_model_under_existing_management_practices_for_nature_reserves_and_urban_greenspace_/1060985", "title"=>"Summarised values for each variable used to parameterise our simulation model under existing management practices for nature reserves and urban greenspace.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539031"], "description"=>"<p>Means, standard deviations, coefficients, standard errors, and variance ratios, which indicate the relative importance or effect size of each model term, are presented for each explanatory variable used to parameterise our simulation model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "regression", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "perpetuated", "greenspace", "300"], "article_id"=>1060986, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_regression_model_used_to_perform_a_sensitivity_analysis_of_the_mean_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_ln_x_1_transformed_perpetuated_in_urban_greenspace_over_300_years_/1060986", "title"=>"Linear regression model used to perform a sensitivity analysis of the mean number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> (ln (x+1) transformed) perpetuated in urban greenspace over 300 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539721"], "description"=>"<div><p>Large old trees are disproportionate providers of structural elements (e.g. hollows, coarse woody debris), which are crucial habitat resources for many species. The decline of large old trees in modified landscapes is of global conservation concern. Once large old trees are removed, they are difficult to replace in the short term due to typically prolonged time periods needed for trees to mature (i.e. centuries). Few studies have investigated the decline of large old trees in urban landscapes. Using a simulation model, we predicted the future availability of native hollow-bearing trees (a surrogate for large old trees) in an expanding city in southeastern Australia. In urban greenspace, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees is likely to decline by 87% over 300 years under existing management practices. Under a worst case scenario, hollow-bearing trees may be completely lost within 115 years. Conversely, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees will likely remain stable in semi-natural nature reserves. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the number of hollow-bearing trees perpetuated in urban greenspace over the long term is most sensitive to the: (1) maximum standing life of trees; (2) number of regenerating seedlings ha<sup>−1</sup>; and (3) rate of hollow formation. We tested the efficacy of alternative urban management strategies and found that the only way to arrest the decline of large old trees requires a collective management strategy that ensures: (1) trees remain standing for at least 40% longer than currently tolerated lifespans; (2) the number of seedlings established is increased by at least 60%; and (3) the formation of habitat structures provided by large old trees is accelerated by at least 30% (e.g. artificial structures) to compensate for short term deficits in habitat resources. Immediate implementation of these recommendations is needed to avert long term risk to urban biodiversity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "trees"], "article_id"=>1061563, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.s001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Future_of_Large_Old_Trees_in_Urban_Landscapes_/1061563", "title"=>"The Future of Large Old Trees in Urban Landscapes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539710"], "description"=>"<p>Simple schematic highlighting the five principle steps of our simulation model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "schematic", "highlighting", "steps", "simulation"], "article_id"=>1061552, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simple_schematic_highlighting_the_five_principle_steps_of_our_simulation_model_/1061552", "title"=>"Simple schematic highlighting the five principle steps of our simulation model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539711"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency distribution of median tree diameter cohorts for tree stands (all species) in nature reserves (open bars) and urban greenspace (solid bars).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "median", "diameter", "cohorts", "stands", "reserves", "greenspace"], "article_id"=>1061553, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distribution_of_median_tree_diameter_cohorts_for_tree_stands_all_species_in_nature_reserves_open_bars_and_urban_greenspace_solid_bars_/1061553", "title"=>"Frequency distribution of median tree diameter cohorts for tree stands (all species) in nature reserves (open bars) and urban greenspace (solid bars).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539712"], "description"=>"<p>Simulations predicting the relative number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> (mean ±95% prediction interval) over 300 years under existing management practices in nature reserves (1) and urban greenspace (2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "predicting", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "300", "years", "practices", "reserves", "greenspace"], "article_id"=>1061554, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulations_predicting_the_relative_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_mean_177_95_prediction_interval_over_300_years_under_existing_management_practices_in_nature_reserves_1_and_urban_greenspace_2_/1061554", "title"=>"Simulations predicting the relative number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> (mean ±95% prediction interval) over 300 years under existing management practices in nature reserves (1) and urban greenspace (2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539713"], "description"=>"<p>Variables include: the maximum standing life of trees (A); the number of seedlings ha<sup>−1</sup> (B); and the rate of hollow formation (represented by the coefficient for the probability of hollow occurrence; C). Predicted thresholds under existing management practices are provided for reference (solid circles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "greenspace", "300", "years", "variables", "sizes", "derived"], "article_id"=>1061555, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_predicted_relative_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_mean_177_95_prediction_intervals_in_urban_greenspace_over_300_years_for_a_range_of_values_for_variables_with_the_greatest_relative_effect_sizes_derived_from_a_sensitivity_analysis_/1061555", "title"=>"The predicted relative number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> (mean ±95 prediction intervals) in urban greenspace over 300 years for a range of values for variables with the greatest relative effect sizes derived from a sensitivity analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539025"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency distribution of median tree diameter cohorts for tree stands (all species) in nature reserves (open bars) and urban greenspace (solid bars).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "median", "diameter", "cohorts", "stands", "reserves", "greenspace"], "article_id"=>1060980, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_distribution_of_median_tree_diameter_cohorts_for_tree_stands_all_species_in_nature_reserves_open_bars_and_urban_greenspace_solid_bars_/1060980", "title"=>"Frequency distribution of median tree diameter cohorts for tree stands (all species) in nature reserves (open bars) and urban greenspace (solid bars).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539026"], "description"=>"<p>Simulations predicting the relative number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> (mean ±95% prediction interval) over 300 years under existing management practices in nature reserves (1) and urban greenspace (2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "predicting", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "300", "years", "practices", "reserves", "greenspace"], "article_id"=>1060981, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulations_predicting_the_relative_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_mean_177_95_prediction_interval_over_300_years_under_existing_management_practices_in_nature_reserves_1_and_urban_greenspace_2_/1060981", "title"=>"Simulations predicting the relative number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> (mean ±95% prediction interval) over 300 years under existing management practices in nature reserves (1) and urban greenspace (2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539716"], "description"=>"<p>Simulated scenarios include: increasing the standing life of trees only up to 500 years; increasing the number of seedlings only up to 60 ha<sup>−1</sup>; accelerating hollow formation only by 62% above the observed mean rate (as represented by the coefficient for the probability of hollow occurrence); and a combined management approach (i.e. our recommended management proposal), which manipulates all three variables simultaneously. Scenarios under existing management practices are provided for reference by solid black lines for nature reserves (1) and urban greenspace (2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "300", "years", "scenarios"], "article_id"=>1061558, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_predicted_relative_mean_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_over_300_years_under_a_series_of_alternative_urban_tree_management_scenarios_dashed_lines_/1061558", "title"=>"The predicted relative mean number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> over 300 years under a series of alternative urban tree management scenarios (dashed lines).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539028"], "description"=>"<p>The predicted relative mean number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> in urban greenspace over 300 years for a combination of values for: the maximum standing life of trees and the number of seedlings ha<sup>−1</sup> (A); and the maximum standing life of trees and the rate of hollow formation (represented by the coefficient for the probability of hollow occurrence; B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "greenspace", "300", "years", "seedlings", "hollow", "coefficient", "probability"], "article_id"=>1060983, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_predicted_relative_mean_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_in_urban_greenspace_over_300_years_for_a_combination_of_values_for_the_maximum_standing_life_of_trees_and_the_number_of_seedlings_ha_8722_1_A_and_the_maximum_standing_life_of_trees_and_/1060983", "title"=>"The predicted relative mean number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> in urban greenspace over 300 years for a combination of values for: the maximum standing life of trees and the number of seedlings ha<sup>−1</sup> (A); and the maximum standing life of trees and the rate of hollow formation (represented by the coefficient for the probability of hollow occurrence; B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539718"], "description"=>"<p>Relative values are derived from raw vegetation data or, where applicable, published estimates. Urban management recommendations, derived from a series of simulated alternative management strategies, are indicated for variables identified as being the most ecologically important from a sensitivity analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "parameterise", "simulation", "practices", "reserves"], "article_id"=>1061560, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summarised_values_for_each_variable_used_to_parameterise_our_simulation_model_under_existing_management_practices_for_nature_reserves_and_urban_greenspace_/1061560", "title"=>"Summarised values for each variable used to parameterise our simulation model under existing management practices for nature reserves and urban greenspace.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539719"], "description"=>"<p>Means, standard deviations, coefficients, standard errors, and variance ratios, which indicate the relative importance or effect size of each model term, are presented for each explanatory variable used to parameterise our simulation model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "regression", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "perpetuated", "greenspace", "300"], "article_id"=>1061561, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_regression_model_used_to_perform_a_sensitivity_analysis_of_the_mean_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_ln_x_1_transformed_perpetuated_in_urban_greenspace_over_300_years_/1061561", "title"=>"Linear regression model used to perform a sensitivity analysis of the mean number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> (ln (x+1) transformed) perpetuated in urban greenspace over 300 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539720"], "description"=>"<p>Coefficients, standard errors, 95% confidence intervals, and <i>P</i>-values are presented with species group one held as the reference level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "logistic", "regression", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "10", "cm", "dbh"], "article_id"=>1061562, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalised_logistic_regression_model_used_to_predict_the_proportion_of_hollow_bearing_trees_in_each_10_cm_DBH_diameter_at_breast_height_cohort_/1061562", "title"=>"Generalised logistic regression model used to predict the proportion of hollow-bearing trees in each 10 cm DBH (diameter at breast height) cohort.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539032"], "description"=>"<p>Coefficients, standard errors, 95% confidence intervals, and <i>P</i>-values are presented with species group one held as the reference level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "logistic", "regression", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "10", "cm", "dbh"], "article_id"=>1060987, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalised_logistic_regression_model_used_to_predict_the_proportion_of_hollow_bearing_trees_in_each_10_cm_DBH_diameter_at_breast_height_cohort_/1060987", "title"=>"Generalised logistic regression model used to predict the proportion of hollow-bearing trees in each 10 cm DBH (diameter at breast height) cohort.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539033"], "description"=>"<div><p>Large old trees are disproportionate providers of structural elements (e.g. hollows, coarse woody debris), which are crucial habitat resources for many species. The decline of large old trees in modified landscapes is of global conservation concern. Once large old trees are removed, they are difficult to replace in the short term due to typically prolonged time periods needed for trees to mature (i.e. centuries). Few studies have investigated the decline of large old trees in urban landscapes. Using a simulation model, we predicted the future availability of native hollow-bearing trees (a surrogate for large old trees) in an expanding city in southeastern Australia. In urban greenspace, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees is likely to decline by 87% over 300 years under existing management practices. Under a worst case scenario, hollow-bearing trees may be completely lost within 115 years. Conversely, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees will likely remain stable in semi-natural nature reserves. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the number of hollow-bearing trees perpetuated in urban greenspace over the long term is most sensitive to the: (1) maximum standing life of trees; (2) number of regenerating seedlings ha<sup>−1</sup>; and (3) rate of hollow formation. We tested the efficacy of alternative urban management strategies and found that the only way to arrest the decline of large old trees requires a collective management strategy that ensures: (1) trees remain standing for at least 40% longer than currently tolerated lifespans; (2) the number of seedlings established is increased by at least 60%; and (3) the formation of habitat structures provided by large old trees is accelerated by at least 30% (e.g. artificial structures) to compensate for short term deficits in habitat resources. Immediate implementation of these recommendations is needed to avert long term risk to urban biodiversity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "trees"], "article_id"=>1060988, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.s001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Future_of_Large_Old_Trees_in_Urban_Landscapes_/1060988", "title"=>"The Future of Large Old Trees in Urban Landscapes", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 03:36:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1539715"], "description"=>"<p>The predicted relative mean number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> in urban greenspace over 300 years for a combination of values for: the maximum standing life of trees and the number of seedlings ha<sup>−1</sup> (A); and the maximum standing life of trees and the rate of hollow formation (represented by the coefficient for the probability of hollow occurrence; B).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "biodiversity", "Spatial and landscape ecology", "urban ecology", "Conservation science", "hollow-bearing", "trees", "greenspace", "300", "years", "seedlings", "hollow", "coefficient", "probability"], "article_id"=>1061557, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Darren S. Le Roux", "Karen Ikin", "David B. Lindenmayer", "Adrian D. Manning", "Philip Gibbons"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099403.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_predicted_relative_mean_number_of_hollow_bearing_trees_ha_8722_1_in_urban_greenspace_over_300_years_for_a_combination_of_values_for_the_maximum_standing_life_of_trees_and_the_number_of_seedlings_ha_8722_1_A_and_the_maximum_standing_life_of_trees_and_/1061557", "title"=>"The predicted relative mean number of hollow-bearing trees ha<sup>−1</sup> in urban greenspace over 300 years for a combination of values for: the maximum standing life of trees and the number of seedlings ha<sup>−1</sup> (A); and the maximum standing life of trees and the rate of hollow formation (represented by the coefficient for the probability of hollow occurrence; B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-18 14:43:55"}

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Relative Metric

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