Behavioral and Neural Correlates of Executive Functioning in Musicians and Non-Musicians
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{"title"=>"Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jennifer", "last_name"=>"Zuk", "scopus_author_id"=>"53665021500"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher", "last_name"=>"Benjamin", "scopus_author_id"=>"37094543800"}, {"first_name"=>"Arnold", "last_name"=>"Kenyon", "scopus_author_id"=>"56230197500"}, {"first_name"=>"Nadine", "last_name"=>"Gaab", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508365990"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84903304636", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0099868", "pui"=>"373396695", "pmid"=>"24937544", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903304636", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"13ec88b3-3eb1-3626-84de-3e07a9aa1297", "abstract"=>"Executive functions (EF) are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. To explore this further, two experiments were performed; one with 30 adults with and without musical training and one with 27 musically trained and untrained children (matched for general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic variables) with a standardized EF battery. Furthermore, the neural correlates of EF skills in musically trained and untrained children were investigated using fMRI. Adult musicians compared to non-musicians showed enhanced performance on measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and verbal fluency. Musically trained children showed enhanced performance on measures of verbal fluency and processing speed, and significantly greater activation in pre-SMA/SMA and right VLPFC during rule representation and task-switching compared to musically untrained children. Overall, musicians show enhanced performance on several constructs of EF, and musically trained children further show heightened brain activation in traditional EF regions during task-switching. These results support the working hypothesis that musical training may promote the development and maintenance of certain EF skills, which could mediate the previously reported links between musical training and enhanced cognitive skills and academic achievement.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/behavioral-neural-correlates-executive-functioning-musicians-nonmusicians", "reader_count"=>156, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>16, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>9, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>35, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>16, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Engineering"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>14, "Sports and Recreations"=>4, "Psychology"=>87, "Social Sciences"=>12, "Computer Science"=>3, "Linguistics"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>14}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>87}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "United States"=>6, "Finland"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>11}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1538058"], "description"=>"<p>In each trial a cue [arrow; circle; or triangle] representing a rule was followed by a sound. Children responded with a left or right button press (arrow: horse  =  right; dog  =  left; circle: frog = right; bird = left; triangle: bird = right; frog = left). Critically, in one instance the rule consistently maps to single auditory stimuli (univalent rule) while in the latter two the auditory stimulus-response relationship changes with the visual cue (bivalent rules).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "shifting"], "article_id"=>1060109, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jennifer Zuk", "Christopher Benjamin", "Arnold Kenyon", "Nadine Gaab"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099868.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_modal_shifting_task_fMRI_/1060109", "title"=>"Cross-modal shifting task (fMRI).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-17 03:15:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1538072"], "description"=>"<p>Coordinates in MNI space, gray matter activations significant at p<0.05 with a cluster threshold >50 voxels for musically trained and untrained groups separately; p<0.005 uncorrected threshold for the two-sample t-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "activation", "musically", "trained", "untrained", "children", "separately", "two-sample", "t-test", "bivalent", "univalent"], "article_id"=>1060123, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jennifer Zuk", "Christopher Benjamin", "Arnold Kenyon", "Nadine Gaab"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099868.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Whole_brain_activation_for_musically_trained_and_untrained_children_separately_one_sample_t_test_and_two_sample_t_test_comparison_musically_trained_gt_untrained_during_rule_representation_contrast_all_bivalent_gt_all_univalent_rule_trials_/1060123", "title"=>"Whole brain activation for musically trained and untrained children separately (one sample t-test) and two-sample t-test comparison (musically trained > untrained) during rule representation (contrast: all bivalent > all univalent rule trials).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-17 03:15:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1538071"], "description"=>"<p>+ significant with FDR Correction.</p>a<p>one child did not finish all testing.</p>b<p>Scale where 1 = $25 000–34 999, 2 = $35 000–49 999, 3 = $50 000–74 999, 4 = $75 000–99 999, 5 = $100 000+.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "musicians", "non-musicians", "adults"], "article_id"=>1060122, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jennifer Zuk", "Christopher Benjamin", "Arnold Kenyon", "Nadine Gaab"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099868.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Group_characteristics_of_musicians_and_non_musicians_in_adults_and_children_/1060122", "title"=>"Group characteristics of musicians and non-musicians in adults and children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-17 03:15:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1538070"], "description"=>"<p>Group characteristics of musical experience in adult musicians and musically trained children.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "musicians", "musically", "trained"], "article_id"=>1060121, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jennifer Zuk", "Christopher Benjamin", "Arnold Kenyon", "Nadine Gaab"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099868.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Group_characteristics_of_musical_experience_in_adult_musicians_and_musically_trained_children_/1060121", "title"=>"Group characteristics of musical experience in adult musicians and musically trained children.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-17 03:15:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1538069"], "description"=>"<p>Coordinates in MNI space, gray matter activations significant at p<0.05 with a cluster threshold >50 voxels for musically trained and untrained groups separately; p<0.005 uncorrected threshold for the two-sample t-test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "Behavioral neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "Learning and memory", "neuroimaging", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "activation", "musically", "trained", "untrained", "children", "separately", "two-sample", "t-test", "task-switching", "bivalent", "switches", "reconfigurations", "univalent"], "article_id"=>1060120, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jennifer Zuk", "Christopher Benjamin", "Arnold Kenyon", "Nadine Gaab"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099868.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Whole_brain_activation_for_musically_trained_and_untrained_children_separately_one_sample_t_test_and_two_sample_t_test_comparison_musically_trained_gt_untrained_during_task_switching_contrast_bivalent_switches_and_reconfigurations_gt_univalent_switches_/1060120", "title"=>"Whole brain activation for musically trained and untrained children separately (one sample t-test) and two-sample t-test comparison (musically trained > untrained) during task-switching (contrast: bivalent switches and reconfigurations > univalent switches).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-17 03:15:58"}
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