Gender Differences in Emotional Responses to Cooperative and Competitive Game Play
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{"title"=>"Gender differences in emotional responses to cooperative and competitive game play", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"J. Matias", "last_name"=>"Kivikangas", "scopus_author_id"=>"55252849200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jari", "last_name"=>"Kätsyri", "scopus_author_id"=>"8853399000"}, {"first_name"=>"Simo", "last_name"=>"Järvelä", "scopus_author_id"=>"55257565200"}, {"first_name"=>"Niklas", "last_name"=>"Ravaja", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701727327"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373444586", "sgr"=>"84903691457", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24983952", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903691457", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0100318", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"714b9871-8172-3001-bc27-b8164a452911", "abstract"=>"Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/gender-differences-emotional-responses-cooperative-competitive-game-play-4", "reader_count"=>58, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4, "Engineering"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Design"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>21, "Social Sciences"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>21}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576553"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Intercept is left out as uninformative from all models. Means 1 through 4 correspond to Cooperative, Cooperative and Competitive, Competitive, and Competitive Without Computer. Means 1 and 2 correspond to Male and Female for Gender. For Gender×Condition interactions, the rows denote Male and Female and the columns denote the Condition. Note that the figures here are from the basic models without the confounding game result as covariate. The <i>p</i>-values significant after controlling the false discovery rate are bolded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "self-report", "variables"], "article_id"=>1090413, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["J. Matias Kivikangas", "Jari Kätsyri", "Simo Järvelä", "Niklas Ravaja"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_Mixed_Models_for_Self_Report_Dependent_Variables_in_Experiment_2_/1090413", "title"=>"Linear Mixed Models for Self-Report Dependent Variables in Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:25:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576550"], "description"=>"<p>The error bars represent standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "differences", "self-reported", "arousal", "modes"], "article_id"=>1090409, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["J. Matias Kivikangas", "Jari Kätsyri", "Simo Järvelä", "Niklas Ravaja"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gender_differences_in_heart_rate_left_panel_associated_with_emotional_arousal_and_self_reported_arousal_right_panel_across_cooperative_and_competitive_modes_Experiment_1_/1090409", "title"=>"Gender differences in heart rate (left panel), associated with emotional arousal, and self-reported arousal (right panel), across cooperative and competitive modes (Experiment 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:25:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576549"], "description"=>"<p>The error bars represent standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "differences", "zygomaticus", "orbicularis", "oculi", "emg", "self-reported", "pleasantness", "modes"], "article_id"=>1090408, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["J. Matias Kivikangas", "Jari Kätsyri", "Simo Järvelä", "Niklas Ravaja"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>71, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gender_differences_in_zygomaticus_major_top_left_panel_and_orbicularis_oculi_top_right_EMG_activity_both_associated_with_positive_emotion_and_self_reported_pleasantness_bottom_left_and_positive_affect_bottom_right_across_cooperative_and_competitive_modes/1090408", "title"=>"Gender differences in zygomaticus major (top left panel) and orbicularis oculi (top right) EMG activity, both associated with positive emotion, and self-reported pleasantness (bottom left) and positive affect (bottom right), across cooperative and competitive modes (Experiment 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:25:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576561", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576562"], "description"=>"<div><p>Previous research indicates that males prefer competition over cooperation, and it is sometimes suggested that females show the opposite behavioral preference. In the present article, we investigate the emotions behind the preferences: Do males exhibit more positive emotions during competitive than cooperative activities, and do females show the opposite pattern? We conducted two experiments where we assessed the emotional responses of same-gender dyads (in total 130 participants, 50 female) during intrinsically motivating competitive and cooperative digital game play using facial electromyography (EMG), skin conductance, heart rate measures, and self-reported emotional experiences. We found higher positive emotional responses (as indexed by both physiological measures and self-reports) during competitive than cooperative play for males, but no differences for females. In addition, we found no differences in negative emotions, and heart rate, skin conductance, and self-reports yielded contradictory evidence for arousal. These results support the hypothesis that males not only prefer competitive over cooperative play, but they also exhibit more positive emotional responses during them. In contrast, the results suggest that the emotional experiences of females do not differ between cooperation and competition, which implies that less competitiveness does not mean more cooperativeness. Our results pertain to intrinsically motivated game play, but might be relevant also for other kinds of activities.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "differences", "responses"], "article_id"=>1090420, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["J. Matias Kivikangas", "Jari Kätsyri", "Simo Järvelä", "Niklas Ravaja"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gender_Differences_in_Emotional_Responses_to_Cooperative_and_Competitive_Game_Play_/1090420", "title"=>"Gender Differences in Emotional Responses to Cooperative and Competitive Game Play", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:25:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576557"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Intercept is left out as uninformative from all models. Means 1 through 4 correspond to Cooperative, Cooperative and Competitive, Competitive, and Competitive Without Computer. Means 1 and 2 correspond to Male and Female for Gender. For Gender×Condition interactions, the rows denote Male and Female and the columns denote the Condition. The <i>p</i>-values significant after controlling the false discovery rate are bolded.</p>a<p>Heart rate run with independent members.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "physiological", "variables"], "article_id"=>1090416, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["J. Matias Kivikangas", "Jari Kätsyri", "Simo Järvelä", "Niklas Ravaja"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Linear_Mixed_Models_for_the_Physiological_Dependent_Variables_in_Experiment_2_/1090416", "title"=>"Linear Mixed Models for the Physiological Dependent Variables in Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:25:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576555"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Intercept is left out as uninformative from all models. Means 1 and 2 correspond to Cooperative and Competitive for Mode, and Male and Female for Gender, respectively. For Mode×Gender interactions, the rows denote Male and Female, and the columns denote Cooperative and Competitive, in that order. The <i>p</i>-values significant after controlling the false discovery rate are bolded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "linear", "physiological"], "article_id"=>1090414, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["J. Matias Kivikangas", "Jari Kätsyri", "Simo Järvelä", "Niklas Ravaja"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1_Linear_Mixed_Models_for_Physiological_Dependent_Variables_/1090414", "title"=>"Experiment 1 Linear Mixed Models for Physiological Dependent Variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:25:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576552"], "description"=>"<p>The error bars represent standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "differences", "zygomaticus", "orbicularis", "oculi", "emg", "modes", "competitiveness"], "article_id"=>1090410, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["J. Matias Kivikangas", "Jari Kätsyri", "Simo Järvelä", "Niklas Ravaja"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gender_differences_in_zygomaticus_major_left_panel_and_orbicularis_oculi_right_panel_EMG_activity_both_associated_with_positive_emotion_across_the_four_conditions_representing_different_modes_of_competitiveness_Experiment_2_/1090410", "title"=>"Gender differences in zygomaticus major (left panel) and orbicularis oculi (right panel) EMG activity, both associated with positive emotion, across the four conditions representing different modes of competitiveness (Experiment 2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:25:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1576559"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Intercept is left out as uninformative from all models. Means 1 and 2 correspond Cooperative and Competitive for Mode, and Male and Female for Gender, respectively. For Mode×Gender interactions, the rows denote Male and Female, and columns denote Cooperative and Competitive, in that order. The <i>p</i>-values significant after controlling the false discovery rate are bolded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "linear", "self-report"], "article_id"=>1090418, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["J. Matias Kivikangas", "Jari Kätsyri", "Simo Järvelä", "Niklas Ravaja"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100318.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experiment_1_Linear_Mixed_Models_for_Self_Report_Dependent_Variables_/1090418", "title"=>"Experiment 1 Linear Mixed Models for Self-Report Dependent Variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-01 03:25:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"322", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"84", "full-text"=>"95", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[307]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}]}
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