Pharmacological Validation of an Inward-Rectifier Potassium (Kir) Channel as an Insecticide Target in the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Pharmacological validation of an inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channel as an insecticide target in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matthew F.", "last_name"=>"Rouhier", "scopus_author_id"=>"19338174000"}, {"first_name"=>"Rene", "last_name"=>"Raphemot", "scopus_author_id"=>"55354270100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jerod S.", "last_name"=>"Denton", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103385019"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter M.", "last_name"=>"Piermarini", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189839590"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84903548507", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0100700", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903548507", "pui"=>"373419000", "pmid"=>"24959745"}, "id"=>"e517ee2a-4c64-3d6f-86fb-a7431c2abc81", "abstract"=>"Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (AeKir1) in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits AeKir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (AeKir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of AeKir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on AeKir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks AeKir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of AeKir1.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/pharmacological-validation-inwardrectifier-potassium-kir-channel-insecticide-target-yellow-fever-mos", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84903548507"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84903548507?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84903548507&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84903548507&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84903548507", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84903548507", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84903548507", "dc:title"=>"Pharmacological validation of an inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channel as an insecticide target in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti", "dc:creator"=>"Rouhier M.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"6", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-06-24", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"24 June 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0100700", "citedby-count"=>"22", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center", "affiliation-city"=>"Wooster", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"24959745", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e100700", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0100700", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"12", "html_views"=>"217"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1562592"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Amount of urine excreted by mosquitoes 1 h after injection with 900 nl of the vehicle (K<sup>+</sup>-PBS<sub>50</sub> containing 1.8% DMSO, 0.077% β-cyclodextrane, and 0.008% Solutol), the vehicle containing VU590 (0.77 mM), or the vehicle containing VU608 (0.77 mM). Values are means ± SEM; <i>n</i> = 11 trials of 5 mosquitoes per treatment. Lower-case letters indicate statistical categorization of the means as determined by a one-way ANOVA with a Newman-Keuls posttest (<i>P</i><0.05). (B) Same as ‘A’, but with VU573 and VU342. <i>n</i> = 9 trials of 5 mosquitoes per treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "electrophysiology", "ion channels", "Potassium channels", "Inward-rectifier potassium channels", "Physiological processes", "homeostasis", "Renal physiology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Insect physiology", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Dengue fever", "Lymphatic filariasis", "malaria", "vu342", "vivo", "excretory", "mosquitoes"], "article_id"=>1081536, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Rouhier", "Rene Raphemot", "Jerod S. Denton", "Peter M. Piermarini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100700.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_VU590_VU608_VU573_and_VU342_on_the_in_vivo_excretory_capacity_of_adult_female_mosquitoes_A_aegypti_/1081536", "title"=>"Effects of VU590, VU608, VU573, and VU342 on the in vivo excretory capacity of adult female mosquitoes (<i>A. aegypti</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-24 03:26:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1562590"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Dose-response curve of the toxic effects of VU590 on mosquitoes (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.87). Mortality was assessed 24 h after injecting the hemolymph with 69 nl of the vehicle (K<sup>+</sup>-PBS<sub>50</sub> with 15% DMSO, 1% β-cyclodextran, and 0.1% Solutol) containing appropriate concentrations of VU590 to deliver the doses indicated. The calculated LD<sub>50</sub> is 1.56 nmol (95% CI: 1.29–1.88 nmol). Values are means ± SEM; <i>n</i> = 4 trials of 10 mosquitoes per dose. (B) Comparison of the toxic effects of the vehicle, VU590, and VU608. Mortality was assessed 24 h after injecting the hemolymph with the vehicle (K<sup>+</sup>-PBS<sub>75</sub> with 15% DMSO, 1% β-cyclodextran, and 0.1% Solutol) or the vehicle containing a small molecule (2.8 nmol). Values are means ± SEM; <i>n</i> = 4 trials of 10 mosquitoes. Lower-case letters indicate statistical categorization of the means as determined by a one-way ANOVA with a Newman-Keuls posttest (<i>P</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "electrophysiology", "ion channels", "Potassium channels", "Inward-rectifier potassium channels", "Physiological processes", "homeostasis", "Renal physiology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Insect physiology", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Dengue fever", "Lymphatic filariasis", "malaria", "vu590", "mosquitoes"], "article_id"=>1081534, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Rouhier", "Rene Raphemot", "Jerod S. Denton", "Peter M. Piermarini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100700.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_VU590_on_the_survival_of_adult_female_mosquitoes_A_aegypti_/1081534", "title"=>"Effects of VU590 on the survival of adult female mosquitoes (<i>A. aegypti</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-24 03:26:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1562594"], "description"=>"<div><p>Mosquitoes are important disease vectors that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans, including those that cause malaria and dengue fever. Insecticides have traditionally been deployed to control populations of disease-causing mosquitoes, but the emergence of insecticide resistance has severely limited the number of active compounds that are used against mosquitoes. Thus, to improve the control of resistant mosquitoes there is a need to identify new insecticide targets and active compounds for insecticide development. Recently we demonstrated that inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels and small molecule inhibitors of Kir channels offer promising new molecular targets and active compounds, respectively, for insecticide development. Here we provide pharmacological validation of a specific mosquito Kir channel (<i>Ae</i>Kir1) in the yellow fever mosquito <i>Aedes aegypti</i>. We show that VU590, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian Kir1.1 and Kir7.1 channels, potently inhibits <i>Ae</i>Kir1 but not another mosquito Kir channel (<i>Ae</i>Kir2B) in vitro. Moreover, we show that a previously identified inhibitor of <i>Ae</i>Kir1 (VU573) elicits an unexpected agonistic effect on <i>Ae</i>Kir2B in vitro. Injection of VU590 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes significantly inhibits their capacity to excrete urine and kills them within 24 h, suggesting a mechanism of action on the excretory system. Importantly, a structurally-related VU590 analog (VU608), which weakly blocks <i>Ae</i>Kir1 in vitro, has no significant effects on their excretory capacity and does not kill mosquitoes. These observations suggest that the toxic effects of VU590 are associated with its inhibition of <i>Ae</i>Kir1.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "electrophysiology", "ion channels", "Potassium channels", "Inward-rectifier potassium channels", "Physiological processes", "homeostasis", "Renal physiology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Insect physiology", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Dengue fever", "Lymphatic filariasis", "malaria", "pharmacological", "validation", "inward-rectifier", "potassium", "insecticide", "mosquito"], "article_id"=>1081538, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Rouhier", "Rene Raphemot", "Jerod S. Denton", "Peter M. Piermarini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100700", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Pharmacological_Validation_of_an_Inward_Rectifier_Potassium_Kir_Channel_as_an_Insecticide_Target_in_the_Yellow_Fever_Mosquito_Aedes_aegypti_/1081538", "title"=>"Pharmacological Validation of an Inward-Rectifier Potassium (Kir) Channel as an Insecticide Target in the Yellow Fever Mosquito <i>Aedes aegypti</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-24 03:26:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1562589"], "description"=>"<p>Current-voltage (I–V) relationships of representative <i>Ae</i>Kir1 (A, C) and <i>Ae</i>Kir2B (B, D) oocytes bathed consecutively in solutions containing 0.5 mM K<sup>+</sup> (open boxes), 10 mM K<sup>+</sup> (filled circles), and 10 mM K<sup>+</sup> + 50 µM of a small molecule (gray circles). The small molecule is VU590 in panels ‘A’ and ‘B’, and VU573 in panels ‘C’ and ‘D’. (E) Summary of the percent changes of inward currents at −140 mV in <i>Ae</i>Kir1 and <i>Ae</i>Kir2B oocytes elicited by VU590 and VU573. Positive and negative percent changes indicate activation and inhibition, respectively. <i>P</i> values indicate significant activation or inhibition as determined by a one sample t test (on arcsine transformed values). Values are non-transformed means ± SEM. For VU590 experiments, <i>n</i> = 3 oocytes each for <i>Ae</i>Kir1 and <i>Ae</i>Kir2B. For VU573 experiments, <i>n</i> = 5 and 8 oocytes each for <i>Ae</i>Kir1 and <i>Ae</i>Kir2B, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "electrophysiology", "ion channels", "Potassium channels", "Inward-rectifier potassium channels", "Physiological processes", "homeostasis", "Renal physiology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Insect physiology", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Dengue fever", "Lymphatic filariasis", "malaria", "vu590", "vu573", "channels", "heterologously"], "article_id"=>1081533, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Rouhier", "Rene Raphemot", "Jerod S. Denton", "Peter M. Piermarini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100700.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_VU590_and_VU573_on_Ae_Kir1_and_Ae_Kir2B_channels_expressed_heterologously_in_Xenopus_oocytes_/1081533", "title"=>"Effects of VU590 and VU573 on <i>Ae</i>Kir1 and <i>Ae</i>Kir2B channels expressed heterologously in <i>Xenopus</i> oocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-24 03:26:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1562588"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Chemical structures of the <i>Ae</i>Kir1 inhibitor VU590 and its ‘inactive’ analog VU608. Gray shading highlights the chemical differences between the molecules. (B) Concentration-response curves of VU590 (filled circles) and VU608 (open circles) derived from Tl<sup>+</sup>-flux assays. Values are means ± SEM. <i>n</i> = 2 independent experiments, each performed in triplicate. The calculated IC<sub>50</sub> values for VU590 and VU608 are 5.6 µM (95% CI: 4.3–7.2 µM) and >100 µM, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "electrophysiology", "ion channels", "Potassium channels", "Inward-rectifier potassium channels", "Physiological processes", "homeostasis", "Renal physiology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Insect physiology", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Dengue fever", "Lymphatic filariasis", "malaria", "vu590", "vu608", "channels", "heterologously", "trex-hek293"], "article_id"=>1081532, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Rouhier", "Rene Raphemot", "Jerod S. Denton", "Peter M. Piermarini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100700.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_VU590_and_VU608_on_Ae_Kir1_channels_expressed_heterologously_in_TREx_HEK293_cells_/1081532", "title"=>"Effects of VU590 and VU608 on <i>Ae</i>Kir1 channels expressed heterologously in TREx-HEK293 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-24 03:26:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1562593"], "description"=>"<p>The pH of all solutions was adjusted to 7.5 with NMDG-OH.</p><p>The osmolality of each solution was verified to be 190 mOsm kg<sup>−1</sup> H<sub>2</sub>O (± 5 mOsm kg<sup>−1</sup> H<sub>2</sub>O) by vapor pressure osmometry.</p><p>NMDG  =  N-methyl-D-glucamine.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["physiology", "electrophysiology", "ion channels", "Potassium channels", "Inward-rectifier potassium channels", "Physiological processes", "homeostasis", "Renal physiology", "Zoology", "Entomology", "Insect physiology", "Public and occupational health", "Global health", "Tropical diseases", "neglected tropical diseases", "Dengue fever", "Lymphatic filariasis", "malaria", "solutions", "oocyte"], "article_id"=>1081537, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Matthew F. Rouhier", "Rene Raphemot", "Jerod S. Denton", "Peter M. Piermarini"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100700.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Compositions_in_mM_of_solutions_used_in_oocyte_electrophysiology_/1081537", "title"=>"Compositions (in mM) of solutions used in oocyte electrophysiology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-06-24 03:26:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Epidemiology", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Infectious diseases", "average_usage"=>[319]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[302]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[300]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts