Rostro-Caudal Inhibition of Hindlimb Movements in the Spinal Cord of Mice
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{"title"=>"Rostro-caudal inhibition of hindlimb movements in the spinal cord of mice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vittorio", "last_name"=>"Caggiano", "scopus_author_id"=>"9734548800"}, {"first_name"=>"Mirganka", "last_name"=>"Sur", "scopus_author_id"=>"56239102100"}, {"first_name"=>"Emilio", "last_name"=>"Bizzi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005489607"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373418898", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0100865", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903519901", "pmid"=>"24963653", "sgr"=>"84903519901"}, "id"=>"f6252402-6d89-3425-b880-bde3bae10d27", "abstract"=>"Inhibitory neurons in the adult mammalian spinal cord are known to locally modulate afferent feedback--from muscle proprioceptors and from skin receptors--to pattern motor activity for locomotion and postural control. Here, using optogenetic tools, we explored how the same population of inhibitory interneurons globally affects hindlimb movements in the spinal cord of both anesthetized and freely moving mice. Activation of inhibitory interneurons up to the middle/lower spinal cord i.e. T8-T9, were able to completely and globally suppress all ipsilateral hindlimb movements. Furthermore, the same population of interneurons--which inhibited movements--did not significantly change the sensory and proprioceptive information from the affected limbs to the cortex. These results suggest a rostro-caudal organization of inhibition in the spinal cord motor output without modulation of ascending sensory pathways.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rostrocaudal-inhibition-hindlimb-movements-spinal-cord-mice", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>10, "Unspecified"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Neuroscience"=>12, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>10}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564791"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) EMG recordings from the gluteus muscle with and without light stimulation. (<b>B</b>) Normalized (to the peak activity) EMG of simultaneously recorded agonist and antagonist muscles (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865#pone.0100865.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S3</a>). Spinal cord was stimulated for 100 ms with pulses of 5 ms duration and different frequencies. Similar suppression of the muscle responses were observed independently from the parameters of the stimulation used. (<b>C</b>) Population measure of the AUROC iEMG before (Ref), during (Light ON) and after (Light OFF) stimulation. During the stimulation, muscle activity was suppressed, but right after the stimulation ended a rebound of over activation of the muscles was observed (AUROC iEMGs, asterisks indicate significant difference p<0.05, Wilcoxon sign-rank test corrected for multiple comparisons). (<b>D</b>) Population measure of the latency of the suppression (median 6.5 ms from stimulation onset). (<b>E</b>) Kinematic reconstruction of a movement recorded with an high-speed camera. The animal loose the balance after about 30 ms from stimulation onset. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865#pone.0100865.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Movie S1</a>. (<b>F</b>) Ladder skilled test. The animal was placed in a ladder apparatus where it walked by correctly placing the paws on the rungs of the ladder. In the absence of light stimulation, the animal correctly alternated its limbs. Nevertheless, when light was shone on the spinal cord, the ipsilateral limb was blocked from moving (p<0.05, Wilcoxon sign-rank test), affecting his ability to walk on the rungs (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865#pone.0100865.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Movie S2</a>). Optical fiber was implanted at T12 or higher.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "Spinal cord", "Motor system", "neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "inhibitory", "neuron", "moving"], "article_id"=>1083066, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vittorio Caggiano", "Mirganka Sur", "Emilio Bizzi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activation_of_inhibitory_neuron_in_awake_freely_moving_animals_/1083066", "title"=>"Activation of inhibitory neuron in awake freely moving animals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-25 03:21:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564804", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564805", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564807", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564808", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564809"], "description"=>"<div><p>Inhibitory neurons in the adult mammalian spinal cord are known to locally modulate afferent feedback - from muscle proprioceptors and from skin receptors - to pattern motor activity for locomotion and postural control. Here, using optogenetic tools, we explored how the same population of inhibitory interneurons globally affects hindlimb movements in the spinal cord of both anesthetized and freely moving mice. Activation of inhibitory interneurons up to the middle/lower spinal cord i.e. T8–T9, were able to completely and globally suppress all ipsilateral hindlimb movements. Furthermore, the same population of interneurons - which inhibited movements - did not significantly change the sensory and proprioceptive information from the affected limbs to the cortex. These results suggest a rostro-caudal organization of inhibition in the spinal cord motor output without modulation of ascending sensory pathways.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "Spinal cord", "Motor system", "neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "inhibition", "hindlimb", "movements", "spinal"], "article_id"=>1083079, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vittorio Caggiano", "Mirganka Sur", "Emilio Bizzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rostro_Caudal_Inhibition_of_Hindlimb_Movements_in_the_Spinal_Cord_of_Mice_/1083079", "title"=>"Rostro-Caudal Inhibition of Hindlimb Movements in the Spinal Cord of Mice", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-06-25 03:21:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564800"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) First, muscle(s) suppressed during the awake stimulation of the previous experiment (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865#pone-0100865-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>) were identified. Then, the animal was anesthetized and single neurons were recorded in the sensory cortex. Activity was evoked by electrical stimulation of one of the affected muscles and of the foot. (<b>B</b>) Example of a two single neurons responding to the stimulation of the foot (Neuron 1) and of the muscle (Neuron 2) with different intensities of the current. Light stimulation is presented as well. (<b>C</b>) Population activities in response to foot and muscle stimulation. On the left, normalized population activities obtained at 2 mA. In the center, average normalized activities to the peak activity. On the right, time to peak activities. Asterisks indicate significant differences (from 10 ms to 70 ms after stimulation onset) either between current intensities or between stimulation conditions (two separate – Only Electrical and Electrical + Optical - Kruskal-Wallis p<0.05 post-hoc Bonferroni corrected for multiple comparisons with factor intensities, and Wilcoxon sign-rank test p<0.05 between Only Electrical vs. Electrical + Optical conditions).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "Spinal cord", "Motor system", "neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "peripheral"], "article_id"=>1083075, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vittorio Caggiano", "Mirganka Sur", "Emilio Bizzi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sensory_recording_during_peripheral_stimulation_/1083075", "title"=>"Sensory recording during peripheral stimulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-25 03:21:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564785"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Motor output evoked by intraspinal stimulation of anaesthetized mice. Isometric forces were recorded at the ipsilateral ankle of the side of intraspinal stimulation. Blue light was shone at the same location where electrodes were inserted. Traces of the force evoked by intraspinal stimulation at different depths are shown without (black traces) and with (blue traces) coupling electrical and optical stimulation. (<b>B</b>) Difference of the normalized population of the evoked forces with and without electrical and optical stimulation coupled together (p<0.05, Wilcoxon sign-rank test, n = 8 animals). An index (see Methods, lower subpanel) quantified the amount of reduction (p<0.05, Wilcoxon sign-rank test). (<b>C</b>) Motor output evoked by cortical stimulation of anaesthetized mice. Isometric forces were recorded at the contralateral ankle. Blue light was shone through an optical fiber, which was moved along the rostro-caudal axis of the spinal cord. On the right the average force evoked by cortical stimulation (in black - current only) and coupling electrical and optical stimulation (in blue) at different positions of the spinal cord (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865#pone-0100865-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 3</a>). In the insets it is shown the complete time profile of the force from which the averages were calculated. (<b>D</b>) The index quantifies the overall amount of the reduction (p<0.05, Wilcoxon sign-rank test, n = 10 animals).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "Spinal cord", "Motor system", "neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "evoked"], "article_id"=>1083060, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vittorio Caggiano", "Mirganka Sur", "Emilio Bizzi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Motor_output_evoked_by_intraspinal_cortical_stimulation_/1083060", "title"=>"Motor output evoked by intraspinal/cortical stimulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-25 03:21:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564780"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Transverse sections of the spinal cord at the thoracic (Ai) and lumbar level (Aii). In green endogenous GFP expression, which is similarly distributed both at the thoracic and lumbar spinal levels. (<b>B</b>) Immunostaining and co-localization. First column: DAPI staining; Second column: anti-GFP staining; Third column: anti-GAD67 staining (first row) or anti-GLY staining (second row); Last column: merged image of DAPI, anti-GFP and anti-GAD67/anti-GLY staining. Scale bar: 10 µm. (<b>C</b>) Multiunit responses upon light stimulation of the spinal cord. (<b>D</b>) Identified single neuron. Single neuron responses in the spinal cord were evoked both by stimulation of the muscle, of the foot and by optically stimulating the same area of the spinal cord where the electrode was inserted. As soon as the light was moved away from the electrode (color coded) - with a distance greater than 1 mm - the response to the light stimulation was no longer present.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "Spinal cord", "Motor system", "neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "chr2-eyfp", "bac", "transgenic"], "article_id"=>1083055, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vittorio Caggiano", "Mirganka Sur", "Emilio Bizzi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>304, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_ChR2_EYFP_expression_in_VGAT_ChR2_H134R_EYFP_line_8_BAC_transgenic_mice_/1083055", "title"=>"Characterization of ChR2-EYFP expression in VGAT-ChR2(H134R)-EYFP line 8 BAC transgenic mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-25 03:21:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564787"], "description"=>"<p>Stimulating two different positions of the motor cortex evoked two different movements. Force x/y provide the time profile of the force on the x/y axes of the force sensor: x represents direction of the movement towards the head/back and y movements towards the tail of the animal. Electrical stimulation was combined to light stimulation of different sectors of the spinal cord with 500 µm resolution. In (a) light was shined approximately at the level of T9–T10 and it produced a complete suppression of the module of the force independently on the type of movement evoked. In (b) light was shined approximately at the level of L2–L3 and it produced a weaker and more variable suppression of the two evoked movements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "Spinal cord", "Motor system", "neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "stimulation", "cortical", "sites", "simultaneous", "optical", "spinal"], "article_id"=>1083062, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vittorio Caggiano", "Mirganka Sur", "Emilio Bizzi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electrical_stimulation_at_multiple_cortical_sites_with_simultaneous_optical_stimulation_of_the_spinal_cord_/1083062", "title"=>"Electrical stimulation at multiple cortical sites with simultaneous optical stimulation of the spinal cord.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-25 03:21:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1564801"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Schematics of the experimental set-up. Extracellular recordings were performed during stimulation of the sciatic nerve. Electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve evoked both a population EPSP in the spinal cord and a M-/H- reflexes in the muscle. (<b>B</b>) pEPSPs were recorded at different depths by means of a linear array (see Methods). On the left, it is shown the position of stimulation of the spinal cord with respect to the recording electrodes (reported as rows on the right). On the right, the three columns represent respectively the effect of the pEPSP evoked by electrical stimulation (of the sciatic nerve), by combining electrical and optical stimulation, and AUROC indices (see Methods) to quantify the differences with vs. without optical activation. Population potentials at different depths were mostly perturbed when light was applied at the same position and marginally when it was in the proximity (about 2 mm) of the recording electrode. No difference was present when the light was shined at greater distances from the recording electrode. (<b>C</b>) Electromyography activity evoked by combining electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve with (blue) and without (black) optical stimulation at different position of the spinal cord. Zero distance indicates that light was shone at the same position of the recording electrodes. No effect of the light stimulation on neither M- nor H- reflexes (p>0.05, sign-rank test) was observed independently on the position of the light.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Specimen preparation and treatment", "Mechanical treatment of specimens", "Specimen disruption", "electroporation", "anatomy", "nervous system", "neuroanatomy", "Spinal cord", "Motor system", "neuroscience", "physiology", "electrophysiology", "sensory", "optical", "stimulation", "excitatory", "post-synaptic"], "article_id"=>1083076, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vittorio Caggiano", "Mirganka Sur", "Emilio Bizzi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100865.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_sensory_and_optical_stimulation_on_M_H_reflex_and_population_excitatory_post_synaptic_potential_pEPSP_/1083076", "title"=>"Effect of sensory and optical stimulation on M-/H-reflex and population excitatory post-synaptic potential (pEPSP).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-06-25 03:21:59"}

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