Factors Affecting Date of Implantation, Parturition, and Den Entry Estimated from Activity and Body Temperature in Free-Ranging Brown Bears
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{"title"=>"Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Friebe", "scopus_author_id"=>"35483797400"}, {"first_name"=>"Alina L.", "last_name"=>"Evans", "scopus_author_id"=>"24480948100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon M.", "last_name"=>"Arnemo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603850541"}, {"first_name"=>"Stéphane", "last_name"=>"Blanc", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006670264"}, {"first_name"=>"Sven", "last_name"=>"Brunberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801624904"}, {"first_name"=>"Günther", "last_name"=>"Fleissner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004427210"}, {"first_name"=>"Jon E.", "last_name"=>"Swenson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102439909"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Zedrosser", "scopus_author_id"=>"14023826100"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373459897", "sgr"=>"84903790762", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24988486", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903790762", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0101410", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"b9475b2c-b7bf-3340-a765-0a3f215a8d51", "abstract"=>"Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/factors-affecting-date-implantation-parturition-den-entry-estimated-activity-body-temperature-freera", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>28}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1578706"], "description"=>"<p>The horizontal gray and the black dotted lines show the mean individual body temperature and activity during hibernation, respectively, which were used to calculate the dates of implantation and parturition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["organisms", "animals", "vertebrates", "mammals", "bears", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "hibernation", "Reproductive physiology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "recordings", "hibernating"], "article_id"=>1092291, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrea Friebe", "Alina L. Evans", "Jon M. Arnemo", "Stephane Blanc", "Sven Brunberg", "Günther Fleissner", "Jon E. Swenson", "Andreas Zedrosser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101410.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_the_mean_daily_activity_and_mean_daily_body_temperature_T_b_recordings_for_a_hibernating_pregnant_female_brown_bear_in_Sweden_/1092291", "title"=>"Example of the mean daily activity and mean daily body temperature (T(b)) recordings for a hibernating pregnant female brown bear in Sweden.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-02 03:13:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1578709"], "description"=>"<p>The environmental condition index was significant related to the start of hibernation, date of parturition and on days of hibernation prior parturition. Age was significantly related only to the start of hibernation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["organisms", "animals", "vertebrates", "mammals", "bears", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "hibernation", "Reproductive physiology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "parturition", "days", "46", "hibernating"], "article_id"=>1092294, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrea Friebe", "Alina L. Evans", "Jon M. Arnemo", "Stephane Blanc", "Sven Brunberg", "Günther Fleissner", "Jon E. Swenson", "Andreas Zedrosser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101410.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_age_and_environmental_conditions_on_the_start_of_hibernation_A_date_of_parturition_B_and_on_the_days_of_hibernation_prior_parturition_C_for_46_hibernating_pregnant_female_brown_bear_in_Sweden_/1092294", "title"=>"The effect of age and environmental conditions on the start of hibernation (A), date of parturition (B) and on the days of hibernation prior parturition (C) for 46 hibernating pregnant female brown bear in Sweden.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-02 03:13:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1578711"], "description"=>"<p>Gestation periods of 6 pregnant female brown bears in Sweden, during 2010–2013, calculated from body temperature (T(b)) and activity data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["organisms", "animals", "vertebrates", "mammals", "bears", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "hibernation", "Reproductive physiology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "periods", "calculated"], "article_id"=>1092295, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrea Friebe", "Alina L. Evans", "Jon M. Arnemo", "Stephane Blanc", "Sven Brunberg", "Günther Fleissner", "Jon E. Swenson", "Andreas Zedrosser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101410.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gestation_periods_of_6_pregnant_female_brown_bears_in_Sweden_during_2010_8211_2013_calculated_from_body_temperature_T_b_and_activity_data_/1092295", "title"=>"Gestation periods of 6 pregnant female brown bears in Sweden, during 2010–2013, calculated from body temperature (T(b)) and activity data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-02 03:13:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1578688"], "description"=>"<p>We calculated the dates of implantation and parturition with body temperature data. Preimplantation was defined as the 14-day period before implantation occurred and lactation was defined as the 14-day period after parturition. Extreme outliers are plotted as asterisks. In figure B, the highest activity values in all periods originate from the same pregnant female.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["organisms", "animals", "vertebrates", "mammals", "bears", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "hibernation", "Reproductive physiology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "lactation", "periods", "females"], "article_id"=>1092280, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrea Friebe", "Alina L. Evans", "Jon M. Arnemo", "Stephane Blanc", "Sven Brunberg", "Günther Fleissner", "Jon E. Swenson", "Andreas Zedrosser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101410.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_body_temperature_T_b_A_and_mean_activity_B_during_preimplantation_gestation_and_lactation_periods_for_pregnant_females_brown_bears_N_8202_8202_6_in_Sweden_during_2010_8211_2013_/1092280", "title"=>"Mean body temperature (T(b)) (A) and mean activity (B) during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation periods for pregnant females brown bears (N = 6) in Sweden, during 2010–2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-02 03:13:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1578687"], "description"=>"<p>The solid lines show the mean daily T(b) of 6 individual pregnant females, the dotted line shows the mean daily T(b) of 9 nonpregnant females, including the daily SE (gray bars). The T(b) decreased throughout gestation (Estimate = −0.002, SE<0.001, P<0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["organisms", "animals", "vertebrates", "mammals", "bears", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "hibernation", "Reproductive physiology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "nonpregnant", "hibernating"], "article_id"=>1092279, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrea Friebe", "Alina L. Evans", "Jon M. Arnemo", "Stephane Blanc", "Sven Brunberg", "Günther Fleissner", "Jon E. Swenson", "Andreas Zedrosser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101410.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_daily_body_temperature_T_b_of_pregnant_N_8202_8202_6_and_nonpregnant_N_8202_8202_9_hibernating_female_brown_bears_in_Sweden_during_2010_8211_2013_/1092279", "title"=>"Mean daily body temperature (T(b)) of pregnant (N = 6) and nonpregnant (N = 9) hibernating female brown bears in Sweden, during 2010–2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-02 03:13:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1578695"], "description"=>"<p>For nonpregnant bears, we used the mean date of implantation and parturition determined from pregnant bears with body temperature recordings to define the periods of preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. The box indicates the median, 25, and 75% percentiles; the whiskers show the minimum and maximum observed values that are not statistically outliers. The extreme outlier is plotted as an asterisk.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["organisms", "animals", "vertebrates", "mammals", "bears", "physiology", "Physiological processes", "hibernation", "Reproductive physiology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "lactation", "nonpregnant", "sweden"], "article_id"=>1092286, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Andrea Friebe", "Alina L. Evans", "Jon M. Arnemo", "Stephane Blanc", "Sven Brunberg", "Günther Fleissner", "Jon E. Swenson", "Andreas Zedrosser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101410.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_variation_in_body_temperature_T_b_during_preimplantation_gestation_and_lactation_for_pregnant_N_8202_8202_6_and_nonpregnant_N_8202_8202_9_female_brown_bears_in_Sweden_during_2010_8211_2013_/1092286", "title"=>"Daily variation in body temperature (T(b)) during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation for pregnant (N = 6) and nonpregnant (N = 9) female brown bears in Sweden during 2010–2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-02 03:13:56"}

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Relative Metric

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