Spinal Cord Stimulation Exerts Neuroprotective Effects against Experimental Parkinson’s Disease
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Spinal cord stimulation exerts neuroprotective effects against experimental Parkinson's disease", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Aiko", "last_name"=>"Shinko", "scopus_author_id"=>"15133426100"}, {"first_name"=>"Takashi", "last_name"=>"Agari", "scopus_author_id"=>"8660468800"}, {"first_name"=>"Masahiro", "last_name"=>"Kameda", "scopus_author_id"=>"8280613600"}, {"first_name"=>"Takao", "last_name"=>"Yasuhara", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005648050"}, {"first_name"=>"Akihiko", "last_name"=>"Kondo", "scopus_author_id"=>"35237201500"}, {"first_name"=>"Judith Thomas", "last_name"=>"Tayra", "scopus_author_id"=>"35799090600"}, {"first_name"=>"Kenichiro", "last_name"=>"Sato", "scopus_author_id"=>"55628571241"}, {"first_name"=>"Tatsuya", "last_name"=>"Sasaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"56504280500"}, {"first_name"=>"Susumu", "last_name"=>"Sasada", "scopus_author_id"=>"55911870700"}, {"first_name"=>"Hayato", "last_name"=>"Takeuchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55910697000"}, {"first_name"=>"Takaaki", "last_name"=>"Wakamori", "scopus_author_id"=>"36946346100"}, {"first_name"=>"Cesario V.", "last_name"=>"Borlongan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007115371"}, {"first_name"=>"Isao", "last_name"=>"Date", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004293885"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373524451", "sgr"=>"84904259639", "pmid"=>"25009993", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904259639", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0101468", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"ce0ca431-4e57-389a-9544-a1f80479b1f5", "abstract"=>"In clinical practice, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective for treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the mechanisms have not been understood completely. There are some reports that electrical stimulation exerts neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system diseases including cerebral ischemia, head trauma, epilepsy and PD, although there are a few reports on neuroprotective effects of spinal cord stimulation (SCS). We investigated the neuroprotective effects of high cervical SCS on PD model of rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats received hour-long SCS (2, 50 or 200 Hz) with an epidural electrode at C1-2 level for 16 consecutive days. At 2 days after initial SCS, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was injected into the right striatum of rats. Behavioral evaluations of PD symptoms were employed, including cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test performed at 1 and 2 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. Animals were subsequently euthanized for immunohistochemical investigations. In order to explore neurotrophic and growth factor upregulation induced by SCS, another cohort of rats that received 50 Hz SCS was euthanized at 1 and 2 weeks after lesion for protein assays. Behavioral tests revealed that the number of amphetamine-induced rotations decreased in SCS groups. Immunohistochemically, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive fibers in the striatum were significantly preserved in SCS groups. TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta were significantly preserved in 50 Hz SCS group. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was upregulated by SCS at 1 week after the lesion. These results suggest that high cervical SCS exerts neuroprotection in PD model of rats, at least partially by upregulation of VEGF. SCS is supposed to suppress or delay PD progression and might become a less invasive option for PD patients, although further preclinical and clinical investigations are needed to confirm the effectiveness and safety.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/spinal-cord-stimulation-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-against-experimental-parkinsons-disease-1", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>10, "Psychology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>10}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84904259639"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84904259639?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84904259639&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84904259639&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84904259639", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84904259639", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84904259639", "dc:title"=>"Spinal cord stimulation exerts neuroprotective effects against experimental Parkinson's disease", "dc:creator"=>"Shinko A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"7", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-07-10", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"10 July 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0101468", "citedby-count"=>"18", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Okayama University", "affiliation-city"=>"Okayama", "affiliation-country"=>"Japan"}], "pubmed-id"=>"25009993", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e101468", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0101468", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"65", "xml_views"=>"22", "html_views"=>"330"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"65"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"54"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"45"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1588563"], "description"=>"<p>(A) TH immunostaining in the intact SNc. Severe loss of TH-positive neurons was seen in the lesioned side SNc of control group. Preservation of TH-positive neurons was seen at the lesioned side SNc of 50 Hz SCS group. Scale bar: 200 µm. (B) Significant preservation of TH-positive neurons in the lesioned-side SNc of 50 Hz SCS group, compared to those of control group (*p<0.05, n = 10, respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "immunostaining", "substantia", "nigra", "pars", "compacta"], "article_id"=>1100057, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aiko Shinko", "Takashi Agari", "Masahiro Kameda", "Takao Yasuhara", "Akihiko Kondo", "Judith Thomas Tayra", "Kenichiro Sato", "Tatsuya Sasaki", "Susumu Sasada", "Hayato Takeuchi", "Takaaki Wakamori", "Cesario V. Borlongan", "Isao Date"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101468.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TH_immunostaining_in_the_substantia_nigra_pars_compacta_SNc_and_the_ratio_to_the_intact_side_/1100057", "title"=>"TH immunostaining in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and the ratio to the intact side.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 03:40:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1588547"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Rats receiving 2 Hz and 50 Hz SCS showed reduction of the contralateral bias at 2 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion, compared to that of rats in control group. (B) The number of amphetamine-induced rotations in all SCS groups decreased, compared to that of control group. There was a significant amelioration in 50 Hz SCS group, compared to control group (*p<0.05, n = 10, respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "cylinder", "amphetamine-induced", "rotation"], "article_id"=>1100042, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aiko Shinko", "Takashi Agari", "Masahiro Kameda", "Takao Yasuhara", "Akihiko Kondo", "Judith Thomas Tayra", "Kenichiro Sato", "Tatsuya Sasaki", "Susumu Sasada", "Hayato Takeuchi", "Takaaki Wakamori", "Cesario V. Borlongan", "Isao Date"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101468.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_results_of_cylinder_test_and_amphetamine_induced_rotation_test_/1100042", "title"=>"The results of cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 03:40:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1588566"], "description"=>"<p>(A, B) In the lesioned striatum, VEGF was significantly increased by SCS at 1 week after 6-OHDA lesion (*p<0.05). At 2 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion, VEGF level in the lesioned striatum also appeared elevated, but did not reach statistical significance. (C, D) GDNF in the striatum of both sides was not significantly increased by SCS at 1 and 2 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. (C-lesion: control group lesioned side Striatum; C-intact: control group intact side Striatum; S-lesion: 50 Hz SCS group lesioned side Striatum; S-intact: 50 Hz SCS group intact side Striatum, n = 10, respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "elisa", "vegf"], "article_id"=>1100059, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aiko Shinko", "Takashi Agari", "Masahiro Kameda", "Takao Yasuhara", "Akihiko Kondo", "Judith Thomas Tayra", "Kenichiro Sato", "Tatsuya Sasaki", "Susumu Sasada", "Hayato Takeuchi", "Takaaki Wakamori", "Cesario V. Borlongan", "Isao Date"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101468.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_ELISA_analysis_for_VEGF_and_GDNF_/1100059", "title"=>"Results of ELISA analysis for VEGF and GDNF.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 03:40:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1588552"], "description"=>"<p>(A) TH immunostaining in the striatum. Severe loss of TH-positive fibers was seen in the lesioned striatum of control group. Preservation of TH-positive fibers was seen in the lesioned striatum of all SCS groups. Scale bar: 200 µm. (B) The all SCS groups showed significant preservation of TH-positive fibers in the lesioned striatum, compared to those in control group (*p<0.05, n = 10, respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "hydroxylase", "immunostaining", "striatum"], "article_id"=>1100045, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aiko Shinko", "Takashi Agari", "Masahiro Kameda", "Takao Yasuhara", "Akihiko Kondo", "Judith Thomas Tayra", "Kenichiro Sato", "Tatsuya Sasaki", "Susumu Sasada", "Hayato Takeuchi", "Takaaki Wakamori", "Cesario V. Borlongan", "Isao Date"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101468.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tyrosine_hydroxylase_TH_immunostaining_in_the_striatum_and_the_ratio_to_the_intact_side_/1100045", "title"=>"Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining in the striatum and the ratio to the intact side.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 03:40:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1588543"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Scheme showing overall experimental design. (B) Scheme showing experimental design for protein assay. (C) Photograph showing SCS electrode used in this study (diameter: 2 mm; wire length: 60 mm). (D) Scheme showing a rat during stimulation. (E) Brain tissue (diameter: 3 mm showing gray circle), corresponding to the striatum, was punched out from both the lesioned and the intact side.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neurology", "Neurodegenerative diseases", "Movement disorders", "Parkinson disease", "scs", "punched"], "article_id"=>1100038, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Aiko Shinko", "Takashi Agari", "Masahiro Kameda", "Takao Yasuhara", "Akihiko Kondo", "Judith Thomas Tayra", "Kenichiro Sato", "Tatsuya Sasaki", "Susumu Sasada", "Hayato Takeuchi", "Takaaki Wakamori", "Cesario V. Borlongan", "Isao Date"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101468.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_course_and_SCS_electrode_and_the_brain_region_punched_out_for_protein_assay_/1100038", "title"=>"Time course and SCS electrode, and the brain region punched out for protein assay.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-10 03:40:32"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Hematology", "average_usage"=>[256]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts