Polar Bears from Space: Assessing Satellite Imagery as a Tool to Track Arctic Wildlife
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{"title"=>"Polar bears from space: Assessing satellite imagery as a tool to track arctic wildlife", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Seth", "last_name"=>"Stapleton", "scopus_author_id"=>"55305813600"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle", "last_name"=>"LaRue", "scopus_author_id"=>"36627379000"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Lecomte", "scopus_author_id"=>"35783170300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Atkinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202603081"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Garshelis", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701753893"}, {"first_name"=>"Claire", "last_name"=>"Porter", "scopus_author_id"=>"14825587800"}, {"first_name"=>"Todd", "last_name"=>"Atwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"55982444100"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84903973512", "pmid"=>"25006979", "sgr"=>"84903973512", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0101513", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373489493"}, "id"=>"ece0952b-a443-353a-af8f-dbb0f39227bc", "abstract"=>"Development of efficient techniques for monitoring wildlife is a priority in the Arctic, where the impacts of climate change are acute and remoteness and logistical constraints hinder access. We evaluated high resolution satellite imagery as a tool to track the distribution and abundance of polar bears. We examined satellite images of a small island in Foxe Basin, Canada, occupied by a high density of bears during the summer ice-free season. Bears were distinguished from other light-colored spots by comparing images collected on different dates. A sample of ground-truthed points demonstrated that we accurately classified bears. Independent observers reviewed images and a population estimate was obtained using mark– recapture models. This estimate ( ^ N: 94; 95% Confidence Interval: 92–105) was remarkably similar to an abundance estimate derived from a line transect aerial survey conducted a few days earlier ( ^ N: 102; 95% CI: 69–152). Our findings suggest that satellite imagery is a promising tool for monitoring polar bears on land, with implications for use with other Arctic wildlife. Large scale applications may require development of automated detection processes to expedite review and analysis. Future research should assess the utility of multi-spectral imagery and examine sites with different environmental characteristics.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/polar-bears-space-assessing-satellite-imagery-tool-track-arctic-wildlife", "reader_count"=>67, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>16, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>16, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>35}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>16}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585465"], "description"=>"<p>Imagery was procured from Rowley Island in Foxe Basin, Nunavut during late summer, 2012. The target imagery (a) was searched for polar bears, and the reference imagery (b) was used for comparison. Polar bears are present in the example target image but absent in the reference image (yellow circles). Landscape features that remain consistent between images, including rocks and substrate, are denoted with red arrows. Satellite imagery printed under a CC BY license, with permission from DigitalGlobe ©2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population growth", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "geography", "imagery", "polar"], "article_id"=>1097680, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Seth Stapleton", "Michelle LaRue", "Nicolas Lecomte", "Stephen Atkinson", "David Garshelis", "Claire Porter", "Todd Atwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101513.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_high_resolution_satellite_imagery_used_to_detect_polar_bears_/1097680", "title"=>"Example of high resolution satellite imagery used to detect polar bears.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585466"], "description"=>"<p>Bear locations are indicated in target [(a) and (c)] and reference [(b) and (d)] images with yellow circles. Foam accumulating along the edges of water bodies and changes in water levels between target and reference images are indicated in the bottom pair of shots by red and blue arrows, respectively. Satellite imagery printed under a CC BY license, with permission from DigitalGlobe ©2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population growth", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "geography", "hamper", "detection"], "article_id"=>1097681, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Seth Stapleton", "Michelle LaRue", "Nicolas Lecomte", "Stephen Atkinson", "David Garshelis", "Claire Porter", "Todd Atwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101513.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clouds_top_and_water_conditions_bottom_are_factors_that_may_hamper_detection_of_bears_/1097681", "title"=>"Clouds (top) and water conditions (bottom) are factors that may hamper detection of bears.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585467"], "description"=>"<p>Results of distance sampling analyses of a polar bear aerial survey conducted in northern Foxe Basin, Nunavut, Canada during August – September, 2012. Highly supported models (ΔAIC<i><sub>c</sub></i><3) are presented. In the column Model, the key function is followed by adjustment terms or covariates (VIS =  visibility; poor/fair (e.g., glare, light fog or rain) or excellent; LIGHT =  light conditions; overcast, mostly cloudy, or partly cloudy/clear). ESW =  Effective strip width (meters). p =  Detection probability.  =  Abundance estimate. Goodness of Fit metrics: C-S =  Chi-squared; K-S =  Kolmogorov-Smirnov; C-vM =  Cramér-von Mises.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population growth", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "geography", "sampling"], "article_id"=>1097682, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Seth Stapleton", "Michelle LaRue", "Nicolas Lecomte", "Stephen Atkinson", "David Garshelis", "Claire Porter", "Todd Atwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101513.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_distance_sampling_analyses_/1097682", "title"=>"Summary of distance sampling analyses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:43:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585464"], "description"=>"<p>Target imagery was acquired from Rowley Island (dark shade) in northern Foxe Basin, Nunavut with the WorldView-2 and Quickbird satellites on September 3, 2012. Transects were spaced at 7 km intervals during the aerial survey. The Foxe Basin polar bear subpopulation is outlined in black and the study area is shaded red in the inset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population growth", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "geoinformatics", "Remote sensing imagery", "geography", "bears", "imagery", "helicopter-based", "aerial"], "article_id"=>1097679, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Seth Stapleton", "Michelle LaRue", "Nicolas Lecomte", "Stephen Atkinson", "David Garshelis", "Claire Porter", "Todd Atwood"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101513.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Polar_bears_detected_with_high_resolution_satellite_imagery_and_during_the_helicopter_based_aerial_survey_/1097679", "title"=>"Polar bears detected with high resolution satellite imagery and during the helicopter-based aerial survey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:43:41"}

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