Estimates of the Continuously Publishing Core in the Scientific Workforce
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{"title"=>"Estimates of the continuously publishing core in the scientific workforce", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John P.A.", "last_name"=>"Ioannidis", "scopus_author_id"=>"35377033000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin W.", "last_name"=>"Boyack", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603501746"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Klavans", "scopus_author_id"=>"8554653000"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904060092", "sgr"=>"84904060092", "pui"=>"373496442", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25007173", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0101698"}, "id"=>"a1c729d0-8711-3270-bcb3-c2f1bf7d256f", "abstract"=>"<sec><title>Background</title><p>The ability of a scientist to maintain a continuous stream of publication may be important, because research requires continuity of effort. However, there is no data on what proportion of scientists manages to publish each and every year over long periods of time.</p></sec><sec><title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title><p>Using the entire Scopus database, we estimated that there are 15,153,100 publishing scientists (distinct author identifiers) in the period 1996–2011. However, only 150,608 (&lt;1%) of them have published something in each and every year in this 16-year period (uninterrupted, continuous presence [UCP] in the literature). This small core of scientists with UCP are far more cited than others, and they account for 41.7% of all papers in the same period and 87.1% of all papers with &gt;1000 citations in the same period. Skipping even a single year substantially affected the average citation impact. We also studied the birth and death dynamics of membership in this influential UCP core, by imputing and estimating UCP-births and UCP-deaths. We estimated that 16,877 scientists would qualify for UCP-birth in 1997 (no publication in 1996, UCP in 1997–2012) and 9,673 scientists had their UCP-death in 2010. The relative representation of authors with UCP was enriched in Medical Research, in the academic sector and in Europe/North America, while the relative representation of authors without UCP was enriched in the Social Sciences and Humanities, in industry, and in other continents.</p></sec><sec><title>Conclusions</title><p>The proportion of the scientific workforce that maintains a continuous uninterrupted stream of publications each and every year over many years is very limited, but it accounts for the lion’s share of researchers with high citation impact. This finding may have implications for the structure, stability and vulnerability of the scientific workforce.</p></sec>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/estimates-continuously-publishing-core-scientific-workforce", "reader_count"=>210, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Librarian"=>6, "Researcher"=>47, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>47, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>21}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>20, "Librarian"=>6, "Researcher"=>47, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>47, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>13, "Student > Master"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>21}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53, "Arts and Humanities"=>6, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>7, "Chemistry"=>4, "Computer Science"=>17, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Engineering"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>24, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>11, "Psychology"=>13, "Social Sciences"=>18, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>24}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>18}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>11}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>13}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>6}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>9}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>53}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>17}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>7}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>12, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Spain"=>1, "Canada"=>6, "Netherlands"=>3, "Sweden"=>3, "Belgium"=>2, "Norway"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Brazil"=>3, "Italy"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Chile"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>4, "Croatia"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585488"], "description"=>"<p>The definitions of the 4 groups are: UCP – authors publishing in all 16 years (1996–2011); Non-UCP – authors not publishing in all 16 years (1996–2011); Skip – authors who skipped any of the 16 year(s), excepting those who have published consecutively for two or more years in the beginning of the 1996–2011 period but not after that, and those who published for two or more years at the end of this period but not before that; Skip-1– authors publishing in 15 of the 16 years, with the skipped year between 1997–2010.</p><p>The shown total cites and H-index are the average total cites and H-index for each centile in the respective group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "published", "citations", "hirsch", "h-index", "researchers", "patterns", "publishing"], "article_id"=>1097691, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_published_items_total_citations_and_Hirsch_h_index_for_researchers_with_different_patterns_of_publishing_presence_in_the_scientific_literature_1996_8211_2011_/1097691", "title"=>"Total published items, total citations and Hirsch h-index for researchers with different patterns of publishing presence in the scientific literature, 1996–2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586797"], "description"=>"<p>The definitions of the 4 groups are: UCP – authors publishing in all 16 years (1996–2011); Non-UCP – authors not publishing in all 16 years (1996–2011); Skip – authors who skipped any of the 16 year(s), excepting those who have published consecutively for two or more years in the beginning of the 1996–2011 period but not after that, and those who published for two or more years at the end of this period but not before that; Skip-1– authors publishing in 15 of the 16 years, with the skipped year between 1997–2010.</p><p>The shown total cites and H-index are the average total cites and H-index for each centile in the respective group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "published", "citations", "hirsch", "h-index", "researchers", "patterns", "publishing"], "article_id"=>1098793, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_published_items_total_citations_and_Hirsch_h_index_for_researchers_with_different_patterns_of_publishing_presence_in_the_scientific_literature_1996_8211_2011_/1098793", "title"=>"Total published items, total citations and Hirsch h-index for researchers with different patterns of publishing presence in the scientific literature, 1996–2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585487"], "description"=>"<p>Number of published items indexed in Scopus in each calendar year and proportion published by authors with uninterrupted, continuous presence (UCP) from 1996–2011.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "published", "items", "indexed", "Scopus", "authors"], "article_id"=>1097690, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_published_items_indexed_in_Scopus_in_each_calendar_year_and_proportion_published_by_authors_with_uninterrupted_continuous_presence_UCP_from_1996_8211_2011_/1097690", "title"=>"Number of published items indexed in Scopus in each calendar year and proportion published by authors with uninterrupted, continuous presence (UCP) from 1996–2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586795"], "description"=>"<p>*Retention rates for future years that have been estimated using year-to-year retention rates (Y2YRR) from the earlier data are shown in bold type. Estimated (by extrapolation) numbers of authors who will have uninterrupted, continuous presence for 16 years (UCP-16-births) are listed at the bottom by start year.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "imputed", "year-to-year", "retention", "rates", "cumulative", "authors", "publishing"], "article_id"=>1098791, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_and_imputed_year_to_year_retention_rates_Y2YRR_and_cumulative_retention_rates_by_year_for_authors_based_on_start_year_and_number_of_continuous_publishing_years_/1098791", "title"=>"Estimated and imputed year-to-year retention rates (Y2YRR) and cumulative retention rates by year for authors based on start year and number of continuous publishing years<sup>*</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586796"], "description"=>"<p>Number of published items indexed in Scopus in each calendar year and proportion published by authors with uninterrupted, continuous presence (UCP) from 1996–2011.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "published", "items", "indexed", "Scopus", "authors"], "article_id"=>1098792, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_published_items_indexed_in_Scopus_in_each_calendar_year_and_proportion_published_by_authors_with_uninterrupted_continuous_presence_UCP_from_1996_8211_2011_/1098792", "title"=>"Number of published items indexed in Scopus in each calendar year and proportion published by authors with uninterrupted, continuous presence (UCP) from 1996–2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585482"], "description"=>"<p>Plotting of the data of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698#pone-0101698-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> limited to observed data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "observed"], "article_id"=>1097685, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plotting_of_the_data_of_Table_3_limited_to_observed_data_/1097685", "title"=>"Plotting of the data of Table 3 limited to observed data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586794"], "description"=>"<p>*UCP rates for earlier years that have been estimated by extrapolation using year-to-year retention rates (Y2YRR) from the more recent data are shown in bold type. Estimated (by extrapolation) numbers of authors who ceased publishing in the ending year after having published continuously for 16 years are listed at the bottom of the table.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "imputed", "year-to-year", "retention", "rates", "cumulative", "ucp", "authors", "ending", "publishing", "years"], "article_id"=>1098790, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_and_imputed_year_to_year_retention_rates_Y2YRR_and_cumulative_UCP_rates_for_authors_based_on_ending_year_and_number_of_continuous_publishing_years_previous_to_ending_/1098790", "title"=>"Estimated and imputed year-to-year retention rates (Y2YRR) and cumulative UCP rates for authors based on ending year and number of continuous publishing years previous to ending<sup>*</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586791"], "description"=>"<p>Plotting of the data of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698#pone-0101698-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> limited to observed data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "observed"], "article_id"=>1098787, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plotting_of_the_data_of_Table_3_limited_to_observed_data_/1098787", "title"=>"Plotting of the data of Table 3 limited to observed data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585481"], "description"=>"<p>For each of the 4 groups, data are presented for bins of authors spanning 10 papers in the total count of papers (0–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41, 50, 51–60, etc), provided that there are at least 50 authors in the bin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "citation", "metrics", "authors", "groups", "papers", "authored"], "article_id"=>1097684, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_citation_metrics_for_authors_in_the_4_groups_according_to_the_total_number_of_papers_they_authored_in_1996_8211_2011_A_total_citation_count_B_h_index_C_total_citation_count_limited_to_Medical_Research_scientists_D_h_index_limited_to_Medical_Resear/1097684", "title"=>"Median citation metrics for authors in the 4 groups according to the total number of papers they authored in 1996–2011: (A) total citation count, (B) h-index, (C) total citation count, limited to Medical Research scientists, (D) h-index, limited to Medical Research scientists.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585489", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585490", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585491"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The ability of a scientist to maintain a continuous stream of publication may be important, because research requires continuity of effort. However, there is no data on what proportion of scientists manages to publish each and every year over long periods of time.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>Using the entire Scopus database, we estimated that there are 15,153,100 publishing scientists (distinct author identifiers) in the period 1996–2011. However, only 150,608 (<1%) of them have published something in each and every year in this 16-year period (uninterrupted, continuous presence [UCP] in the literature). This small core of scientists with UCP are far more cited than others, and they account for 41.7% of all papers in the same period and 87.1% of all papers with >1000 citations in the same period. Skipping even a single year substantially affected the average citation impact. We also studied the birth and death dynamics of membership in this influential UCP core, by imputing and estimating UCP-births and UCP-deaths. We estimated that 16,877 scientists would qualify for UCP-birth in 1997 (no publication in 1996, UCP in 1997–2012) and 9,673 scientists had their UCP-death in 2010. The relative representation of authors with UCP was enriched in Medical Research, in the academic sector and in Europe/North America, while the relative representation of authors without UCP was enriched in the Social Sciences and Humanities, in industry, and in other continents.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The proportion of the scientific workforce that maintains a continuous uninterrupted stream of publications each and every year over many years is very limited, but it accounts for the lion’s share of researchers with high citation impact. This finding may have implications for the structure, stability and vulnerability of the scientific workforce.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "continuously", "publishing"], "article_id"=>1097692, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_the_Continuously_Publishing_Core_in_the_Scientific_Workforce_/1097692", "title"=>"Estimates of the Continuously Publishing Core in the Scientific Workforce", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585486"], "description"=>"<p>*Retention rates for future years that have been estimated using year-to-year retention rates (Y2YRR) from the earlier data are shown in bold type. Estimated (by extrapolation) numbers of authors who will have uninterrupted, continuous presence for 16 years (UCP-16-births) are listed at the bottom by start year.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "imputed", "year-to-year", "retention", "rates", "cumulative", "authors", "publishing"], "article_id"=>1097689, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_and_imputed_year_to_year_retention_rates_Y2YRR_and_cumulative_retention_rates_by_year_for_authors_based_on_start_year_and_number_of_continuous_publishing_years_/1097689", "title"=>"Estimated and imputed year-to-year retention rates (Y2YRR) and cumulative retention rates by year for authors based on start year and number of continuous publishing years<sup>*</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586798", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586799", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586800"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>The ability of a scientist to maintain a continuous stream of publication may be important, because research requires continuity of effort. However, there is no data on what proportion of scientists manages to publish each and every year over long periods of time.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>Using the entire Scopus database, we estimated that there are 15,153,100 publishing scientists (distinct author identifiers) in the period 1996–2011. However, only 150,608 (<1%) of them have published something in each and every year in this 16-year period (uninterrupted, continuous presence [UCP] in the literature). This small core of scientists with UCP are far more cited than others, and they account for 41.7% of all papers in the same period and 87.1% of all papers with >1000 citations in the same period. Skipping even a single year substantially affected the average citation impact. We also studied the birth and death dynamics of membership in this influential UCP core, by imputing and estimating UCP-births and UCP-deaths. We estimated that 16,877 scientists would qualify for UCP-birth in 1997 (no publication in 1996, UCP in 1997–2012) and 9,673 scientists had their UCP-death in 2010. The relative representation of authors with UCP was enriched in Medical Research, in the academic sector and in Europe/North America, while the relative representation of authors without UCP was enriched in the Social Sciences and Humanities, in industry, and in other continents.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The proportion of the scientific workforce that maintains a continuous uninterrupted stream of publications each and every year over many years is very limited, but it accounts for the lion’s share of researchers with high citation impact. This finding may have implications for the structure, stability and vulnerability of the scientific workforce.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "continuously", "publishing"], "article_id"=>1098794, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_the_Continuously_Publishing_Core_in_the_Scientific_Workforce_/1098794", "title"=>"Estimates of the Continuously Publishing Core in the Scientific Workforce", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585484"], "description"=>"<p>*Only those papers for which can be linked to others through citation are classified. Thus, the main field for some authors with only one indexed publication cannot be determined.</p><p>**Both region and sector information are calculated based on an incomplete list of institutions. All major institutions (those publishing at least 50 papers per year) are accounted for. However, region, and sector information have not been curated for smaller institutions. Thus, the region and sector information for many authors cannot be determined for these less prolific institutions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "researchers", "randomly", "sampled", "authors"], "article_id"=>1097687, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_researchers_with_different_publication_patterns_1996_8211_2011_based_on_n_8202_8202_10_000_randomly_sampled_authors_for_each_pattern_/1097687", "title"=>"Characteristics of researchers with different publication patterns, 1996–2011, based on n = 10,000 randomly sampled authors for each pattern.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585485"], "description"=>"<p>*UCP rates for earlier years that have been estimated by extrapolation using year-to-year retention rates (Y2YRR) from the more recent data are shown in bold type. Estimated (by extrapolation) numbers of authors who ceased publishing in the ending year after having published continuously for 16 years are listed at the bottom of the table.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "imputed", "year-to-year", "retention", "rates", "cumulative", "ucp", "authors", "ending", "publishing", "years"], "article_id"=>1097688, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_and_imputed_year_to_year_retention_rates_Y2YRR_and_cumulative_UCP_rates_for_authors_based_on_ending_year_and_number_of_continuous_publishing_years_previous_to_ending_/1097688", "title"=>"Estimated and imputed year-to-year retention rates (Y2YRR) and cumulative UCP rates for authors based on ending year and number of continuous publishing years previous to ending<sup>*</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586793"], "description"=>"<p>*Only those papers for which can be linked to others through citation are classified. Thus, the main field for some authors with only one indexed publication cannot be determined.</p><p>**Both region and sector information are calculated based on an incomplete list of institutions. All major institutions (those publishing at least 50 papers per year) are accounted for. However, region, and sector information have not been curated for smaller institutions. Thus, the region and sector information for many authors cannot be determined for these less prolific institutions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "researchers", "randomly", "sampled", "authors"], "article_id"=>1098789, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_researchers_with_different_publication_patterns_1996_8211_2011_based_on_n_8202_8202_10_000_randomly_sampled_authors_for_each_pattern_/1098789", "title"=>"Characteristics of researchers with different publication patterns, 1996–2011, based on n = 10,000 randomly sampled authors for each pattern.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1585483"], "description"=>"<p>Plotting of the data of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698#pone-0101698-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a> limited to observed data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "observed"], "article_id"=>1097686, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plotting_of_the_data_of_Table_4_limited_to_observed_data_/1097686", "title"=>"Plotting of the data of Table 4 limited to observed data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 02:44:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586792"], "description"=>"<p>Plotting of the data of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698#pone-0101698-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a> limited to observed data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "observed"], "article_id"=>1098788, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plotting_of_the_data_of_Table_4_limited_to_observed_data_/1098788", "title"=>"Plotting of the data of Table 4 limited to observed data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1586789"], "description"=>"<p>For each of the 4 groups, data are presented for bins of authors spanning 10 papers in the total count of papers (0–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41, 50, 51–60, etc), provided that there are at least 50 authors in the bin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Information technology", "databases", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical methods", "Research assessment", "Bibliometrics", "Research monitoring", "Research facilities", "Research laboratories", "Science and technology workforce", "Careers in research", "citation", "metrics", "authors", "groups", "papers", "authored"], "article_id"=>1098785, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["John P. A. Ioannidis", "Kevin W. Boyack", "Richard Klavans"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101698.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_citation_metrics_for_authors_in_the_4_groups_according_to_the_total_number_of_papers_they_authored_in_1996_8211_2011_A_total_citation_count_B_h_index_C_total_citation_count_limited_to_Medical_Research_scientists_D_h_index_limited_to_Medical_Resear/1098785", "title"=>"Median citation metrics for authors in the 4 groups according to the total number of papers they authored in 1996–2011: (A) total citation count, (B) h-index, (C) total citation count, limited to Medical Research scientists, (D) h-index, limited to Medical Research scientists.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-09 14:42:19"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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