Herbivores Influence the Growth, Reproduction, and Morphology of a Widespread Arctic Willow
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{"title"=>"Herbivores influence the growth, reproduction, and morphology of a widespread arctic willow", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Katie S.", "last_name"=>"Christie", "scopus_author_id"=>"56183805900"}, {"first_name"=>"Roger W.", "last_name"=>"Ruess", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003306568"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark S.", "last_name"=>"Lindberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103079339"}, {"first_name"=>"Christa P.", "last_name"=>"Mulder", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102987946"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"373595160", "sgr"=>"84904620682", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25047582", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904620682", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0101716", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"39678af9-7c58-3ae8-9ade-98b6a0dc8c77", "abstract"=>"Shrubs have expanded in Arctic ecosystems over the past century, resulting in significant changes to albedo, ecosystem function, and plant community composition. Willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus, L. muta) and moose (Alces alces) extensively browse Arctic shrubs, and may influence their architecture, growth, and reproduction. Furthermore, these herbivores may alter forage plants in such a way as to increase the quantity and accessibility of their own food source. We estimated the effect of winter browsing by ptarmigan and moose on an abundant, early-successional willow (Salix alaxensis) in northern Alaska by comparing browsed to unbrowsed branches. Ptarmigan browsed 82-89% of willows and removed 30-39% of buds, depending on study area and year. Moose browsed 17-44% of willows and browsed 39-55% of shoots. Browsing inhibited apical dominance and activated axillary and adventitious buds to produce new vegetative shoots. Ptarmigan- and moose-browsed willow branches produced twice the volume of shoot growth but significantly fewer catkins the following summer compared with unbrowsed willow branches. Shoots on browsed willows were larger and produced 40-60% more buds compared to unbrowsed shoots. This process of shoot production at basal parts of the branch is the mechanism by which willows develop a highly complex \"broomed\" architecture after several years of browsing. Broomed willows were shorter and more likely to be re-browsed by ptarmigan, but not moose. Ptarmigan likely benefit from the greater quantity and accessibility of buds on previously browsed willows and may increase the carrying capacity of their own habitat. Despite the observed tolerance of willows to browsing, their vertical growth and reproduction were strongly inhibited by moose and ptarmigan. Browsing by these herbivores therefore needs to be considered in future models of shrub expansion in the Arctic.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/herbivores-influence-growth-reproduction-morphology-widespread-arctic-willow", "reader_count"=>34, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>3}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604051"], "description"=>"<p>Data were collected in 2012 from willows growing in the Noatak and Dalton study areas in northern Alaska. Error bars denote standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "Global change ecology", "Plant ecology", "Population ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Population biology", "Species interactions", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "Mammalogy", "produced", "feltleaf", "willows", "had", "been", "unbrowsed", "browsed", "ptarmigan", "moose"], "article_id"=>1113524, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Katie S. Christie", "Roger W. Ruess", "Mark S. Lindberg", "Christa P. Mulder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_a_and_total_b_shoot_volume_produced_during_the_growing_season_by_feltleaf_willows_Salix_alaxensis_that_had_been_unbrowsed_U_browsed_by_ptarmigan_Lagopus_lagopus_L_muta_P_or_browsed_by_moose_Alces_alces_M_the_previous_winter_/1113524", "title"=>"Mean (a) and total (b) shoot volume produced during the growing season by feltleaf willows (<i>Salix alaxensis</i>) that had been unbrowsed (U), browsed by ptarmigan (<i>Lagopus lagopus</i>, <i>L. muta</i>; P), or browsed by moose (<i>Alces alces</i>; M) the previous winter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:31:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604066"], "description"=>"<p>Ptarmigan (<i>Lagopus lagopus, L. muta)</i> tracks are visible around the broomed willow.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "Global change ecology", "Plant ecology", "Population ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Population biology", "Species interactions", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "Mammalogy", "broomed", "feltleaf", "willows"], "article_id"=>1113538, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Katie S. Christie", "Roger W. Ruess", "Mark S. Lindberg", "Christa P. Mulder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Un_broomed_left_and_broomed_right_feltleaf_willows_Salix_alaxensis_in_northern_Alaska_/1113538", "title"=>"Un-broomed (left) and broomed (right) feltleaf willows (<i>Salix alaxensis</i>) in northern Alaska.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:31:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604079", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604080", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604081", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604082", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604083"], "description"=>"<div><p>Shrubs have expanded in Arctic ecosystems over the past century, resulting in significant changes to albedo, ecosystem function, and plant community composition. Willow and rock ptarmigan (<i>Lagopus lagopus, L. muta</i>) and moose (<i>Alces alces</i>) extensively browse Arctic shrubs, and may influence their architecture, growth, and reproduction. Furthermore, these herbivores may alter forage plants in such a way as to increase the quantity and accessibility of their own food source. We estimated the effect of winter browsing by ptarmigan and moose on an abundant, early-successional willow (<i>Salix alaxensis</i>) in northern Alaska by comparing browsed to unbrowsed branches. Ptarmigan browsed 82–89% of willows and removed 30–39% of buds, depending on study area and year. Moose browsed 17–44% of willows and browsed 39–55% of shoots. Browsing inhibited apical dominance and activated axillary and adventitious buds to produce new vegetative shoots. Ptarmigan- and moose-browsed willow branches produced twice the volume of shoot growth but significantly fewer catkins the following summer compared with unbrowsed willow branches. Shoots on browsed willows were larger and produced 40–60% more buds compared to unbrowsed shoots. This process of shoot production at basal parts of the branch is the mechanism by which willows develop a highly complex “broomed” architecture after several years of browsing. Broomed willows were shorter and more likely to be re-browsed by ptarmigan, but not moose. Ptarmigan likely benefit from the greater quantity and accessibility of buds on previously browsed willows and may increase the carrying capacity of their own habitat. Despite the observed tolerance of willows to browsing, their vertical growth and reproduction were strongly inhibited by moose and ptarmigan. Browsing by these herbivores therefore needs to be considered in future models of shrub expansion in the Arctic.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "Global change ecology", "Plant ecology", "Population ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Population biology", "Species interactions", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "Mammalogy", "morphology", "arctic"], "article_id"=>1113551, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Katie S. Christie", "Roger W. Ruess", "Mark S. Lindberg", "Christa P. Mulder"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Herbivores_Influence_the_Growth_Reproduction_and_Morphology_of_a_Widespread_Arctic_Willow_/1113551", "title"=>"Herbivores Influence the Growth, Reproduction, and Morphology of a Widespread Arctic Willow", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:31:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604054"], "description"=>"<p>Figures A, C, and D reflect probabilities of buds transitioning from one state to another, whereas B, E, and F reflect numbers of buds per shoot. “Dormant buds” are adventitious buds on previous years' growth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "Global change ecology", "Plant ecology", "Population ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Population biology", "Species interactions", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "Mammalogy", "rates", "ptarmigan", "unbrowsed", "feltleaf", "willows", "dalton", "noatak"], "article_id"=>1113527, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Katie S. Christie", "Roger W. Ruess", "Mark S. Lindberg", "Christa P. Mulder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Vital_rates_and_standard_errors_of_ptarmigan_Lagopus_lagopus_L_muta_browsed_and_unbrowsed_feltleaf_willows_Salix_alaxensis_in_the_Dalton_and_Noatak_study_areas_/1113527", "title"=>"Vital rates (and standard errors) of ptarmigan (<i>Lagopus lagopus</i>, <i>L. muta</i>)-browsed and unbrowsed feltleaf willows (<i>Salix alaxensis</i>) in the Dalton and Noatak study areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:31:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604069"], "description"=>"<p>Mixed models were used to assess the strength of relationships, with proportion of broomed branches as the fixed effect, and site as therandom effect. Dotted lines indicate upper and lower 95% confidence intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "Global change ecology", "Plant ecology", "Population ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Population biology", "Species interactions", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "Mammalogy", "percent", "feltleaf", "willow", "branches", "broomed", "probability", "browsing", "ptarmigan"], "article_id"=>1113541, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Katie S. Christie", "Roger W. Ruess", "Mark S. Lindberg", "Christa P. Mulder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_percent_of_feltleaf_willow_Salix_alaxensis_branches_that_were_broomed_and_plant_height_a_and_the_probability_of_browsing_by_ptarmigan_b_/1113541", "title"=>"Relationship between percent of feltleaf willow (<i>Salix alaxensis</i>) branches that were broomed and plant height (a) and the probability of browsing by ptarmigan (b).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:31:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1604053"], "description"=>"<p>Error bars denote standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Community Ecology", "Trophic interactions", "Global change ecology", "Plant ecology", "Population ecology", "Terrestrial ecology", "Plant science", "Population biology", "Species interactions", "Zoology", "Avian biology", "Mammalogy", "catkins", "unbrowsed", "ptarmigan-browsed", "moose-browsed", "feltleaf", "willows", "dalton", "noatak"], "article_id"=>1113526, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Katie S. Christie", "Roger W. Ruess", "Mark S. Lindberg", "Christa P. Mulder"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101716.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_catkins_per_branch_of_unbrowsed_U_ptarmigan_browsed_Lagopus_lagopus_L_muta_P_and_moose_browsed_Alces_alces_M_feltleaf_willows_Salix_alaxensis_in_the_Dalton_and_Noatak_study_areas_/1113526", "title"=>"Number of catkins per branch of unbrowsed (U), ptarmigan-browsed (<i>Lagopus lagopus, L. muta</i>; P), and moose-browsed (<i>Alces alces</i>; M) feltleaf willows (<i>Salix alaxensis</i>) in the Dalton and Noatak study areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:31:20"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Atmospheric science", "average_usage"=>[295]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[313]}]}
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