Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas
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{"title"=>"Individual distinctiveness in call types of wild western female gorillas", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roberta", "last_name"=>"Salmi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55803975000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kurt", "last_name"=>"Hammerschmidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"55859627900"}, {"first_name"=>"Diane M.", "last_name"=>"Doran-Sheehy", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507968207"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84904343214", "pui"=>"373542243", "pmid"=>"25029238", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904343214", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0101940"}, "id"=>"cdb7cbde-8383-33b6-93f8-3e4f70a915f0", "abstract"=>"Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/individual-distinctiveness-call-types-wild-western-female-gorillas", "reader_count"=>36, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597057"], "description"=>"<p>Call types include single grunt (SG), double grunt (DG), grumble (GR), threat grunt (TG), copulation grunt (CG), hum (HM), hoot series (HT), and scream (SC). The call type is equivalent to the call segment, except for TG, CG HT, in which case the call segment is indicated by a bracket.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "gorilla"], "article_id"=>1107655, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrograms_of_female_gorilla_call_types_/1107655", "title"=>"Spectrograms of female gorilla call types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597058"], "description"=>"<p>Call types include: hoot series (HT), hum (HM), grumble (GR), double grunt (DG), single grunt (SG), copulation grunt (CG), threat grunt (TG), and scream (SC).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "intra-individual", "coefficient", "gorilla"], "article_id"=>1107656, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inter_and_intra_individual_mean_coefficient_of_variation_CV_for_eight_gorilla_call_types_/1107656", "title"=>"Inter- and intra-individual mean coefficient of variation (CV) for eight gorilla call types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597069"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of eight discriminant function analyses, including the identity of the females (F1-6), sample size (n) per female, the % of calls assigned correctly to individual based on discriminant functional analysis (DFA) or cross-validated DFA (C-DFA), relative p-values calculated from pDFAs interactions (P<sub>1</sub> and P<sub>2</sub>), number of Functions (F), Wilk's λ, Chi square (χ<sup>2</sup>) and p-values, number of linear mixed models (M) and significant parameters after LMM and Hochberg correction.</p><p>* In cases with low number of calls a meaningful cross-validation was not possible.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "distinctiveness", "gorilla"], "article_id"=>1107665, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_distinctiveness_in_eight_western_gorilla_call_types_/1107665", "title"=>"Individual distinctiveness in eight western gorilla call types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597067"], "description"=>"<p>Acoustic parameters list. Number, type, name and description of parameters used in the analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications"], "article_id"=>1107663, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Acoustic_parameters_list_Number_type_name_and_description_of_parameters_used_in_the_analysis_/1107663", "title"=>"Acoustic parameters list. Number, type, name and description of parameters used in the analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597066"], "description"=>"<p>Spectrograms of three call types given by different female gorillas (F1, F2, F4, F6) showing the acoustic variation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "types", "gorillas", "acoustic"], "article_id"=>1107662, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spectrograms_of_three_call_types_given_by_different_female_gorillas_F1_F2_F4_F6_showing_the_acoustic_variation_/1107662", "title"=>"Spectrograms of three call types given by different female gorillas (F1, F2, F4, F6) showing the acoustic variation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597063"], "description"=>"<p>Each individual is indicated with a different symbol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "discriminant", "functions", "gorilla", "types", "dfa"], "article_id"=>1107659, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plots_of_the_two_first_discriminant_functions_for_five_female_western_gorilla_call_types_based_on_the_DFA_of_three_females_/1107659", "title"=>"Plots of the two first discriminant functions for five female western gorilla call types based on the DFA of three females.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597062"], "description"=>"<p>The overall PIC (PIC) for each call type is calculated as mean coefficient of inter-individual variation divided by the mean coefficient of intra-individual variation, where each coefficient of variation is averaged over all parameters. Call types include: hoot series (HT), hum (HM), grumble (GR), double grunt (DG), single grunt (SG), copulation grunt (CG), threat grunt (TG), and scream (SC).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "coding"], "article_id"=>1107658, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overall_Potential_for_Identity_Coding_PIC_for_each_of_eight_call_types_/1107658", "title"=>"Overall Potential for Identity Coding (PIC) for each of eight call types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597074"], "description"=>"<div><p>Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (<i>Gorilla gorilla</i>) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "distinctiveness", "types"], "article_id"=>1107670, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_Distinctiveness_in_Call_Types_of_Wild_Western_Female_Gorillas_/1107670", "title"=>"Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597071"], "description"=>"<p>The last column summarizes the results.</p><p>* Not generalizable since p-values generated by cross-validated permutated DFAs did not reach significance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "predictions", "acoustic", "variability", "distinctiveness", "gorilla"], "article_id"=>1107667, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hypotheses_and_predictions_for_acoustic_variability_and_individual_distinctiveness_across_western_gorilla_call_types_/1107667", "title"=>"Hypotheses and predictions for acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness across western gorilla call types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1597070"], "description"=>"1<p>: Salmi et al. 2013; <sup>2</sup>: R. Salmi in revision.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Physical anthropology", "Zoology", "Animal behavior", "anthropology", "Sociology", "communications", "gorilla", "amplitude", "contexts"], "article_id"=>1107666, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Roberta Salmi", "Kurt Hammerschmidt", "Diane M. Doran-Sheehy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101940.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Description_of_female_western_gorilla_call_types_including_amplitude_soft_or_loud_typical_distance_at_which_they_are_exchanged_whether_they_are_given_to_a_broad_or_specific_audience_and_the_contexts_in_which_they_are_given_/1107666", "title"=>"Description of female western gorilla call types, including amplitude (soft or loud), typical distance at which they are exchanged, whether they are given to a broad or specific audience and the contexts in which they are given.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 03:23:25"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[329]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}]}
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