String Theory - The Physics of String-Bending and Other Electric Guitar Techniques
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{"title"=>"String theory - The physics of string-bending and other electric guitar techniques", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"David Robert", "last_name"=>"Grimes", "scopus_author_id"=>"36543768900"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904696252", "pui"=>"373596252", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0102088", "sgr"=>"84904696252", "pmid"=>"25054880"}, "id"=>"db133517-3014-3d3e-9002-acb6296b47c0", "abstract"=>"Electric guitar playing is ubiquitous in practically all modern music genres. In the hands of an experienced player, electric guitars can sound as expressive and distinct as a human voice. Unlike other more quantised instruments where pitch is a discrete function, guitarists can incorporate micro-tonality and, as a result, vibrato and sting-bending are idiosyncratic hallmarks of a player. Similarly, a wide variety of techniques unique to the electric guitar have emerged. While the mechano-acoustics of stringed instruments and vibrating strings are well studied, there has been comparatively little work dedicated to the underlying physics of unique electric guitar techniques and strings, nor the mechanical factors influencing vibrato, string-bending, fretting force and whammy-bar dynamics. In this work, models for these processes are derived and the implications for guitar and string design discussed. The string-bending model is experimentally validated using a variety of strings and vibrato dynamics are simulated. The implications of these findings on the configuration and design of guitars is also discussed.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/string-theory-physics-stringbending-other-electric-guitar-techniques", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606786"], "description"=>"<p>(b) String affixed above first fretting peg, a vertical displacement of approximately 7.5 mm from resting position.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception", "bending", "pegs", "inserted", "12th", "fret", "equilibrium"], "article_id"=>1115840, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modified_experimental_guitar_with_two_bending_pegs_inserted_at_12th_fret_a_String_in_equilibrium_position_string_unbent_/1115840", "title"=>"Modified experimental guitar with two bending pegs inserted at 12th fret (a) String in equilibrium position, string unbent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606784"], "description"=>"<p>Force diagram for a bent string.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception", "diagram", "bent"], "article_id"=>1115838, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Force_diagram_for_a_bent_string_/1115838", "title"=>"Force diagram for a bent string.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606792", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606793", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606794", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606795"], "description"=>"<div><p>Electric guitar playing is ubiquitous in practically all modern music genres. In the hands of an experienced player, electric guitars can sound as expressive and distinct as a human voice. Unlike other more quantised instruments where pitch is a discrete function, guitarists can incorporate micro-tonality and, as a result, vibrato and sting-bending are idiosyncratic hallmarks of a player. Similarly, a wide variety of techniques unique to the electric guitar have emerged. While the mechano-acoustics of stringed instruments and vibrating strings are well studied, there has been comparatively little work dedicated to the underlying physics of unique electric guitar techniques and strings, nor the mechanical factors influencing vibrato, string-bending, fretting force and whammy-bar dynamics. In this work, models for these processes are derived and the implications for guitar and string design discussed. The string-bending model is experimentally validated using a variety of strings and vibrato dynamics are simulated. The implications of these findings on the configuration and design of guitars is also discussed.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception", "string-bending"], "article_id"=>1115846, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_String_Theory_The_Physics_of_String_Bending_and_Other_Electric_Guitar_Techniques_/1115846", "title"=>"String Theory - The Physics of String-Bending and Other Electric Guitar Techniques", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606789"], "description"=>"<p>Shortening the vibrating string length increases the fretting force required, so higher frets are more difficult to push down than lower ones. Fret-board action has the greatest influence on fretting force, and even relatively small differences in displacement from the fret-marker can have substantial effect on effort required. In these examples, N and N.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception", "fretting", "vibrating", "fret-board"], "article_id"=>1115843, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Variation_of_fretting_force_with_a_vibrating_string_length_b_fret_board_action_/1115843", "title"=>"Variation of fretting force with (a) vibrating string length (b) fret-board action.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606788"], "description"=>"<p>Simulation results for a fast, narrow vibrato and a slow, wide vibrato.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception", "vibrato"], "article_id"=>1115842, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simulation_results_for_a_fast_narrow_vibrato_and_a_slow_wide_vibrato_/1115842", "title"=>"Simulation results for a fast, narrow vibrato and a slow, wide vibrato.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606791"], "description"=>"<p>Measured string properties.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception"], "article_id"=>1115845, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measured_string_properties_/1115845", "title"=>"Measured string properties.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606790"], "description"=>"<p>Experimental results for string types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception"], "article_id"=>1115844, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_results_for_string_types_/1115844", "title"=>"Experimental results for string types.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606787"], "description"=>"<p>The highest three strings depicted in (a), (b) and (c) had approximately the same Young's modulus, close to that of steel. For composite wound strings depicted in (d), (e) and (f), this was markedly lower and decreasing. Best fits are shown for all strings with the solid line, the the dotted and dashed lines depict best fits if bend displacement is plus or minus 0.5 mm from measured value.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception"], "article_id"=>1115841, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_for_test_string_on_experimental_guitar_rig_/1115841", "title"=>"Results for test string on experimental guitar rig.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606785"], "description"=>"<p>Fretting force diagram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computer modeling", "Systems science", "dynamical systems", "Dynamic response", "Nonlinear dynamics", "Nonlinear systems", "Acoustical engineering", "Human factors engineering", "Mechanical engineering", "Vibration engineering", "Materials Science", "Material properties", "Mechanical properties", "stiffness", "Materials characterization", "Materials physics", "mathematics", "Statistics (mathematics)", "Statistical models", "Applied mathematics", "physics", "Acoustics", "Acoustic signals", "reverberation", "Sound pressure", "Sound waves", "Classical mechanics", "Continuum mechanics", "dynamics", "force", "Mechanical tension", "Solid mechanics", "vibration", "Physical systems analysis", "Mathematical and statistical techniques", "mathematical models", "Simulation and modeling", "mathematical modeling", "psychology", "behavior", "Human performance", "Sensory perception", "hearing", "pitch perception"], "article_id"=>1115839, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["David Robert Grimes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102088.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fretting_force_diagram_/1115839", "title"=>"Fretting force diagram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 04:24:46"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[262]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[259]}]}
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