Size-Dependent Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Bacteria, Yeast, Algae, Crustaceans and Mammalian Cells In Vitro
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles to bacteria, yeast, algae, crustaceans and mammalian cells in vitro", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Angela", "last_name"=>"Ivask", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801321588"}, {"first_name"=>"Imbi", "last_name"=>"Kurvet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506104049"}, {"first_name"=>"Kaja", "last_name"=>"Kasemets", "scopus_author_id"=>"8984371000"}, {"first_name"=>"Irina", "last_name"=>"Blinova", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603573512"}, {"first_name"=>"Villem", "last_name"=>"Aruoja", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801663912"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandra", "last_name"=>"Suppi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55521415200"}, {"first_name"=>"Heiki", "last_name"=>"Vija", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602904748"}, {"first_name"=>"Aleksandr", "last_name"=>"Kak̈inen", "scopus_author_id"=>"54405921700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tiina", "last_name"=>"Titma", "scopus_author_id"=>"56287874300"}, {"first_name"=>"Margit", "last_name"=>"Heinlaan", "scopus_author_id"=>"16230032500"}, {"first_name"=>"Meeri", "last_name"=>"Visnapuu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55770131400"}, {"first_name"=>"Dagmar", "last_name"=>"Koller", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196875676"}, {"first_name"=>"Vambola", "last_name"=>"Kisand", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004348077"}, {"first_name"=>"Anne", "last_name"=>"Kahru", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603910568"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904699929", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0102108", "sgr"=>"84904699929", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25048192", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373595165"}, "id"=>"57f6cd2d-08e0-3460-aa62-597fd79ac7bb", "abstract"=>"The concept of nanotechnologies is based on size-dependent properties of particles in the 1-100 nm range. However, the relation between the particle size and biological effects is still unclear. The aim of the current paper was to generate and analyse a homogenous set of experimental toxicity data on Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of similar coating (citrate) but of 5 different primary sizes (10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 nm) to different types of organisms/cells commonly used in toxicity assays: bacterial, yeast and algal cells, crustaceans and mammalian cells in vitro. When possible, the assays were conducted in ultrapure water to minimise the effect of medium components on silver speciation. The toxic effects of NPs to different organisms varied about two orders of magnitude, being the lowest (∼0.1 mg Ag/L) for crustaceans and algae and the highest (∼26 mg Ag/L) for mammalian cells. To quantify the role of Ag ions in the toxicity of Ag NPs, we normalized the EC50 values to Ag ions that dissolved from the NPs. The analysis showed that the toxicity of 20-80 nm Ag NPs could fully be explained by released Ag ions whereas 10 nm Ag NPs proved more toxic than predicted. Using E. coli Ag-biosensor, we demonstrated that 10 nm Ag NPs were more bioavailable to E. coli than silver salt (AgNO3). Thus, one may infer that 10 nm Ag NPs had more efficient cell-particle contact resulting in higher intracellular bioavailability of silver than in case of bigger NPs. Although the latter conclusion is initially based on one test organism, it may lead to an explanation for \"size-dependent\" biological effects of silver NPs. This study, for the first time, investigated the size-dependent toxic effects of a well-characterized library of Ag NPs to several microbial species, protozoans, algae, crustaceans and mammalian cells in vitro.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sizedependent-toxicity-silver-nanoparticles-bacteria-yeast-algae-crustaceans-mammalian-cells-vitro", "reader_count"=>206, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>71, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>29, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>71, "Student > Postgraduate"=>9, "Student > Master"=>34, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>21, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>22, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>67, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>1, "Chemistry"=>35, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>13, "Environmental Science"=>25, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>7}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>22}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>25}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>4}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>13}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>35}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>67}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Poland"=>3, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Portugal"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>7}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84904699929"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84904699929?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84904699929&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84904699929&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84904699929", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84904699929", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84904699929", "dc:title"=>"Size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles to bacteria, yeast, algae, crustaceans and mammalian cells in vitro", "dc:creator"=>"Ivask A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"7", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-07-21", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"21 July 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0102108", "citedby-count"=>"316", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn", "affiliation-city"=>"Tallinn", "affiliation-country"=>"Estonia"}], "pubmed-id"=>"25048192", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e102108", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true, "freetoread"=>{"value"=>[{"$"=>"all"}, {"$"=>"publisherfullgold"}, {"$"=>"repository"}, {"$"=>"repositoryvor"}, {"$"=>"repositoryam"}]}, "freetoreadLabel"=>{"value"=>[{"$"=>"All Open Access"}, {"$"=>"Gold"}, {"$"=>"Green"}]}}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0102108", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"8", "html_views"=>"62"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"120"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"67", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"175"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"66", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"220"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"240"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"191"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"37", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"165"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"176"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"163"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"137"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"130"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"149"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"34", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"161"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"202"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"180"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"180"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"246"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"213"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"138"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"169"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"146"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"141"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"137"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"53", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"166"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"187"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"211"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"184"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"89", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"169"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"125"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"182"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"236"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"71", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"183"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"157"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"128"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"100"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"132"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"115"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"147"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"218"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"133"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"57", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"124"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"72", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"112"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"117"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"67", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"129"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"92"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"47", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"45", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"57", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"72"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"62", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"73"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"36", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"43", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"46", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"39", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"79"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"61", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"44", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"56", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"79", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"88", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"50", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"30", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"64"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"48", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2021", "pdf_views"=>"32", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2021", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2021", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603821", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603822", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603823", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603824", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603825", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603827", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603828", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603830", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603831"], "description"=>"<div><p>The concept of nanotechnologies is based on size-dependent properties of particles in the 1–100 nm range. However, the relation between the particle size and biological effects is still unclear. The aim of the current paper was to generate and analyse a homogenous set of experimental toxicity data on Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of similar coating (citrate) but of 5 different primary sizes (10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 nm) to different types of organisms/cells commonly used in toxicity assays: bacterial, yeast and algal cells, crustaceans and mammalian cells <i>in vitro</i>. When possible, the assays were conducted in ultrapure water to minimise the effect of medium components on silver speciation. The toxic effects of NPs to different organisms varied about two orders of magnitude, being the lowest (∼0.1 mg Ag/L) for crustaceans and algae and the highest (∼26 mg Ag/L) for mammalian cells. To quantify the role of Ag ions in the toxicity of Ag NPs, we normalized the EC<sub>50</sub> values to Ag ions that dissolved from the NPs. The analysis showed that the toxicity of 20–80 nm Ag NPs could fully be explained by released Ag ions whereas 10 nm Ag NPs proved more toxic than predicted. Using <i>E. coli</i> Ag-biosensor, we demonstrated that 10 nm Ag NPs were more bioavailable to <i>E. coli</i> than silver salt (AgNO<sub>3</sub>). Thus, one may infer that 10 nm Ag NPs had more efficient cell-particle contact resulting in higher intracellular bioavailability of silver than in case of bigger NPs. Although the latter conclusion is initially based on one test organism, it may lead to an explanation for “size-dependent“ biological effects of silver NPs. This study, for the first time, investigated the size-dependent toxic effects of a well-characterized library of Ag NPs to several microbial species, protozoans, algae, crustaceans and mammalian cells <i>in vitro</i>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "size-dependent", "crustaceans", "mammalian", "cells"], "article_id"=>1113376, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Size_Dependent_Toxicity_of_Silver_Nanoparticles_to_Bacteria_Yeast_Algae_Crustaceans_and_Mammalian_Cells_In_Vitro_/1113376", "title"=>"Size-Dependent Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Bacteria, Yeast, Algae, Crustaceans and Mammalian Cells <i>In Vitro</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603819"], "description"=>"a<p>measured from Ag NPs stock suspension.</p>b<p>measured from SEM images, 20–30 particles (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108#pone-0102108-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1</a>).</p>c<p>according to single particle (SP)-ICP-MS.</p>d<p>measured using SP-ICP-MS.</p>e<p>UP water – ultrapure water.</p>f<p>AFW – OECD 202 artificial freshwater used as test medium for crustaceans <i>Daphnia magna</i>.</p>g<p>DMEM (cell culture medium) with 10% NBCS.</p><p>pdi – polydispersity index.</p><p>n.a. not available.</p><p>* the samples were too polydispersed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "studied", "citrate-stabilised", "ag"], "article_id"=>1113374, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Physico_chemical_characteristics_of_the_studied_citrate_stabilised_Ag_nanoparticles_/1113374", "title"=>"Physico-chemical characteristics of the studied citrate-stabilised Ag nanoparticles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603816"], "description"=>"<p>EC<sub>50</sub> values presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108#pone-0102108-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 4</a> (lower panel) were normalized for dissolved Ag (for dissolution, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108#pone-0102108-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>). * - significantly (p<0.05) different from EC<sub>50</sub> of AgNO<sub>3</sub>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "nm", "ag", "nps"], "article_id"=>1113371, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dissolution_corrected_EC_50_values_of_10_8211_80_nm_Ag_NPs_and_AgNO_3_/1113371", "title"=>"Dissolution-corrected EC<sub>50</sub> values of 10–80 nm Ag NPs and AgNO<sub>3</sub>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603815"], "description"=>"<p>Upper panel (A–D): dose-response curves; lower panel (E–H): EC<sub>50</sub> values. X-axis shows nominal Ag concentrations. * - significantly (p<0.05) different from EC<sub>50</sub> value of AgNO<sub>3</sub>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "curves", "respective", "ag", "formulations", "organisms"], "article_id"=>1113370, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dose_response_curves_and_the_respective_EC_50_values_of_Ag_formulations_to_test_organisms_and_cells_/1113370", "title"=>"Dose-response curves and the respective EC<sub>50</sub> values of Ag formulations to test organisms and cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603818"], "description"=>"<p>n.a. – not available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "nanoparticle", "size-related"], "article_id"=>1113373, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_currently_available_nanoparticle_size_related_toxicity_data_for_selected_eco_toxicological_test_organisms_/1113373", "title"=>"Summary of currently available nanoparticle size-related toxicity data for selected (eco)toxicological test organisms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603817"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Induction of bioluminescence in Ag-inducible <i>E.coli</i> bioreporter strain by AgNO<sub>3</sub> and 10–80 nm Ag NPs. Concentration of different Ag formulations at 2-fold induction is shown; (B) 4-h EC<sub>50</sub> of AgNO<sub>3</sub> and Ag NPs, corrected for dissolved Ag (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108#pone-0102108-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>) or bioavailable Ag, calculated from bioluminescence induction of Ag bioreporter strain (see panel A).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "subtoxic", "concentrations", "ag", "formulations", "bioavailability-corrected"], "article_id"=>1113372, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_of_E_coli_sensor_to_subtoxic_concentrations_of_Ag_formulations_and_bioavailability_corrected_EC_50_values_/1113372", "title"=>"Response of <i>E. coli</i> sensor to subtoxic concentrations of Ag formulations and bioavailability-corrected EC<sub>50</sub> values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603814"], "description"=>"<p>Ultrapure water was used as a solvent to mimic the dissolution in the bacterial and yeast assays, OECD 202 artificial freshwater was used for <i>Daphnia magna</i> assay, algal test medium for <i>Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata</i> and cell culture medium for Balb/3T3 murine fibroblast assay. Dissolved ionic Ag was measured after incubation of 1 mg/L Ag NPs or 0.01 mg/L AgNO<sub>3</sub> for 4 hours (ultrapure water), 24 hours (cell culture medium), 48 hours (artificial freshwater) or 72 hours (algal medium), depending on the length of the toxicity assay. The results shown were measured from Ag NPs suspensions and AgNO<sub>3</sub> solution after ultracentrifugation. These results were confirmed by single particle (SP)-ICP-MS according to which 1.4% of 10 nm Ag NPs, 1% of 20 nm Ag NPs and 0.5% of 10 nm Ag NPs had been dissolved in ultrapure water.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "ag", "nps"], "article_id"=>1113369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dissolution_of_Ag_NPs_in_different_test_media_/1113369", "title"=>"Dissolution (%) of Ag NPs in different test media.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603812"], "description"=>"<p>A: TEM photos of the particles; B: SEM photos with EDX mapping; C: UV-Vis absorption spectra (Ag-10 nm 8 mg/L, Ag-20 nm 11 mg/L, Ag-40 nm, Ag-60 nm and Ag-80 nm 5 mg/L in ultrapure (UP) water. Maximum absorption is indicated with a vertical dotted line; wide absorption spectrum indicates polydispersity of the sample.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "microscopy", "images", "uv-vis", "absorption", "spectra", "studied", "citrate-stabilised", "ag"], "article_id"=>1113367, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electron_microscopy_images_and_UV_Vis_absorption_spectra_of_the_studied_citrate_stabilised_Ag_nanoparticles_/1113367", "title"=>"Electron microscopy images and UV-Vis absorption spectra of the studied citrate-stabilised Ag nanoparticles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603813"], "description"=>"<p>Concentrations of Ag NPs were: Ag-10 nm 8 mg/L, Ag-20 nm 11 mg/L, Ag-40 nm, Ag-60 nm and Ag-80 nm 5 mg/L. Decreased absorption of light (420 nm) by Ag particles in artificial freshwater (test medium for <i>D. magna</i>) (dotted line) is due to settling over time. In ultrapure water (solid line) no decrease in absorption was observed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "ag", "nps", "ultrapure", "freshwater"], "article_id"=>1113368, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sedimentation_of_Ag_NPs_in_ultrapure_water_and_in_artificial_freshwater_during_60_/1113368", "title"=>"Sedimentation of Ag NPs in ultrapure water and in artificial freshwater during 60", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1603820"], "description"=>"a<p>Dissolved ionic Ag was determined from the supernatant of ultracentrifuged nanoparticles suspension. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108#pone.0102108.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>.</p>b<p>Bioavailable Ag was analyzed using recombinant bioluminescent Ag-sensor bacteria <i>E. coli</i> MC1061(pSLcueR/pDNPcopAlux). See also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108#s2\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108#pone-0102108-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>.</p>c<p>not calculated as the bioavailability measurement was relevant only for bacterial cells.</p><p>UP water – ultrapure water.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology", "Microbial control", "antimicrobials", "microbicides", "toxicology", "toxicity", "marine and aquatic sciences", "Aquatic environments", "Freshwater environments", "nanotechnology", "Nanomaterials", "nanoparticles", "dissolution-", "bioavailability-corrected", "sized", "ag", "nps", "ionic"], "article_id"=>1113375, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Angela Ivask", "Imbi Kurvet", "Kaja Kasemets", "Irina Blinova", "Villem Aruoja", "Sandra Suppi", "Heiki Vija", "Aleksandr Käkinen", "Tiina Titma", "Margit Heinlaan", "Meeri Visnapuu", "Dagmar Koller", "Vambola Kisand", "Anne Kahru"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102108.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nominal_dissolution_and_bioavailability_corrected_EC_50_values_mg_Ag_L_of_different_sized_Ag_NPs_and_ionic_AgNO_3_for_various_test_organisms_/1113375", "title"=>"Nominal, dissolution- and bioavailability-corrected EC<sub>50</sub> values (mg Ag/L) of different sized Ag NPs and ionic AgNO<sub>3</sub> for various test organisms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-21 15:20:21"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"28", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"89", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"19", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"58", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"31", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"15", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"78", "full-text"=>"64", "pdf"=>"41", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"64", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"28", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"68", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"42", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"18", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"9", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Toxicology", "average_usage"=>[266, 408]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Hydrology", "average_usage"=>[272]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Nanotechnology", "average_usage"=>[230, 417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[262]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[266]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts