Millennium-Scale Crossdating and Inter-Annual Climate Sensitivities of Standing California Redwoods
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{"title"=>"Millennium-scale crossdating and inter-annual climate sensitivities of standing California redwoods", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Allyson L.", "last_name"=>"Carroll", "scopus_author_id"=>"55420290300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen C.", "last_name"=>"Sillett", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603954075"}, {"first_name"=>"Russell D.", "last_name"=>"Kramer", "scopus_author_id"=>"56094326500"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373542189", "sgr"=>"84904280094", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0102545", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904280094", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"25029026"}, "id"=>"02ca3c9b-65d0-397d-acce-28f36a105a48", "abstract"=>"Extremely decay-resistant wood and fire-resistant bark allow California’s redwoods to accumulate millennia of annual growth rings that can be useful in biological research. Whereas tree rings of Sequoiadendron giganteum (SEGI) helped formalize the study of dendrochronology and the principle of crossdating, those of Sequoia sempervirens (SESE) have proven much more difficult to decipher, greatly limiting dendroclimatic and other investigations of this species. We overcame these problems by climbing standing trees and coring trunks at multiple heights in 14 old-growth forest locations across California. Overall, we sampled 1,466 series with 483,712 annual rings from 120 trees and were able to crossdate 83% of SESE compared to 99% of SEGI rings. Standard and residual tree-ring chronologies spanning up to 1,685 years for SESE and 1,538 years for SEGI were created for each location to evaluate crossdating and to examine correlations between annual growth and climate. We used monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and drought severity as well as summer cloudiness to quantify potential drivers of inter-annual growth variation over century-long time series at each location. SESE chronologies exhibited a latitudinal gradient of climate sensitivities, contrasting cooler northern rainforests and warmer, drier southern forests. Radial growth increased with decreasing summer cloudiness in northern rainforests and a central SESE location. The strongest dendroclimatic relationship occurred in our southernmost SESE location, where radial growth correlated negatively with dry summer conditions and exhibited responses to historic fires. SEGI chronologies showed negative correlations with June temperature and positive correlations with previous October precipitation. More work is needed to understand quantitative relationships between SEGI radial growth and moisture availability, particularly snowmelt. Tree-ring chronologies developed here for both redwood species have numerous scientific applications, including determination of tree ages, accurate dating of fire-return intervals, archaeology, analyses of stable isotopes, long- term climate reconstructions, and quantifying rates of carbon sequestration. Citation:", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/millenniumscale-crossdating-interannual-climate-sensitivities-standing-california-redwoods", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596556"], "description"=>"a<p>Measure of year-to-year variability of annual rings <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545#pone.0102545-Speer1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a>.</p>b<p>Average correlation of every series to the master (excluding series in question) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545#pone.0102545-Speer1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a>.</p>c<p>Reflects prior year’s influence on current year’s growth <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545#pone.0102545-Speer1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a>.</p>d<p>Correlation between tree-ring chronologies, representing strength of common variability <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545#pone.0102545-Briffa2\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>.</p>e<p>Degree to which the chronology represents a hypothetical perfect chronology. Function of rbar and sample size, with 0.85 as a recommended cutoff for confidence <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545#pone.0102545-Wigley1\" target=\"_blank\">[44]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545#pone.0102545-Briffa2\" target=\"_blank\">[85]</a>.</p><p>Average tree-level statistics, using series >50 years with high and moderate crossdating confidence. Calculated using COFECHA.</p><p>*Common period 1901–2000.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "tree-ring", "chronologies", "14"], "article_id"=>1107232, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Statistical_characteristics_of_standard_tree_ring_chronologies_for_two_species_at_14_locations_/1107232", "title"=>"Statistical characteristics of standard tree-ring chronologies for two species at 14 locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596554"], "description"=>"<p>Summer drought is average June through September PDSI from the National Climatic Data Center for CA04 (Central Coast California). Both indices standardized by their standard deviates. Note discrepancies after known forest fires in 1985 and 1999 (arrows).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "southernmost", "tree-ring", "california"], "article_id"=>1107230, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visual_comparison_of_southernmost_Sequoia_sempervirens_LH_tree_ring_index_and_Central_Coast_California_summer_drought_index_/1107230", "title"=>"Visual comparison of southernmost <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> (LH) tree-ring index and Central Coast California summer drought index.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596518"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Crossdated SESE annual rings with marks beginning 1900 (three dots far right) and ending 1960 (one dot far left). (B) Crossdated SEGI annual rings with same years and marks as panel A. (C) Area of tight SESE annual rings, including missing rings. (D) SESE ring wedging, where discontinuous rings merge. (E) SESE spiral compression wood. (F) SESE annual rings from northernmost location (JS) showing 1739 event. After large 1738 ring (*), 1739 and 1740 are 1-cell-wide micro-rings merged with 1738 latewood, 1741 and 1742 rings are tight, and 1750 ring is marked with two dots on left. (G) SEGI annual rings from GF showing 1580 event, marked with one dot. Of 12 cores collected from the largest SEGI sampled, this is the only core showing 1580. (H) Two fire scars on core collected 45 m above ground in SESE rainforest (JS). Black boxes in upper right of each panel cover 1 mm<sup>2</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought"], "article_id"=>1107195, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tree_ring_characteristics_of_Sequoia_sempervirens_and_Sequoiadendron_giganteum_/1107195", "title"=>"Tree-ring characteristics of <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> and <i>Sequoiadendron giganteum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596533"], "description"=>"<p>Blue lines indicate ring-width indices for each location, using series >50 years in length with <i>high crossdating confidence</i> and detrended with a 32-year cubic smoothing spline. Red shading denotes difference between total number of series sampled and number of series with <i>high crossdating confidence</i>. Tree sample sizes indicated in gray.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "tree-ring", "chronologies", "depths"], "article_id"=>1107209, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standardized_tree_ring_chronologies_and_sample_depths_for_six_Sequoiadendron_giganteum_locations_/1107209", "title"=>"Standardized tree-ring chronologies and sample depths for six <i>Sequoiadendron giganteum</i> locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596531"], "description"=>"<p>Blue lines indicate ring-width indices for each location, using series >50 years in length with <i>high crossdating confidence</i> and detrended with a 32-year cubic smoothing spline. Pink shading denotes difference between total number of series sampled and number of series with <i>high crossdating confidence</i>. Tree sample sizes indicated in gray.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "tree-ring", "chronologies", "depths"], "article_id"=>1107207, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standardized_tree_ring_chronologies_and_sample_depths_for_eight_Sequoia_sempervirens_locations_/1107207", "title"=>"Standardized tree-ring chronologies and sample depths for eight <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596558", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596559", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596560"], "description"=>"<div><p>Extremely decay-resistant wood and fire-resistant bark allow California’s redwoods to accumulate millennia of annual growth rings that can be useful in biological research. Whereas tree rings of <i>Sequoiadendron giganteum</i> (SEGI) helped formalize the study of dendrochronology and the principle of crossdating, those of <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> (SESE) have proven much more difficult to decipher, greatly limiting dendroclimatic and other investigations of this species. We overcame these problems by climbing standing trees and coring trunks at multiple heights in 14 old-growth forest locations across California. Overall, we sampled 1,466 series with 483,712 annual rings from 120 trees and were able to crossdate 83% of SESE compared to 99% of SEGI rings. Standard and residual tree-ring chronologies spanning up to 1,685 years for SESE and 1,538 years for SEGI were created for each location to evaluate crossdating and to examine correlations between annual growth and climate. We used monthly values of temperature, precipitation, and drought severity as well as summer cloudiness to quantify potential drivers of inter-annual growth variation over century-long time series at each location. SESE chronologies exhibited a latitudinal gradient of climate sensitivities, contrasting cooler northern rainforests and warmer, drier southern forests. Radial growth increased with decreasing summer cloudiness in northern rainforests and a central SESE location. The strongest dendroclimatic relationship occurred in our southernmost SESE location, where radial growth correlated negatively with dry summer conditions and exhibited responses to historic fires. SEGI chronologies showed negative correlations with June temperature and positive correlations with previous October precipitation. More work is needed to understand quantitative relationships between SEGI radial growth and moisture availability, particularly snowmelt. Tree-ring chronologies developed here for both redwood species have numerous scientific applications, including determination of tree ages, accurate dating of fire-return intervals, archaeology, analyses of stable isotopes, long-term climate reconstructions, and quantifying rates of carbon sequestration.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "crossdating", "inter-annual", "sensitivities", "california"], "article_id"=>1107234, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Millennium_Scale_Crossdating_and_Inter_Annual_Climate_Sensitivities_of_Standing_California_Redwoods_/1107234", "title"=>"Millennium-Scale Crossdating and Inter-Annual Climate Sensitivities of Standing California Redwoods", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596553"], "description"=>"<p>Correlations of residual <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> and <i>Sequoiadendron giganteum</i> tree-ring chronologies against regional and state summer drought (average June–September PDSI) indices conducted over a 114-year common period (1895–2008). Dotted line represents cutoff for statistical significance (<i>P<</i>0.01). Locations arranged by latitude from north (left) to south (right) within species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "radial", "indices", "14"], "article_id"=>1107229, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_radial_growth_sensitivity_to_summer_drought_indices_for_two_species_at_14_locations_/1107229", "title"=>"Summary of radial growth sensitivity to summer drought indices for two species at 14 locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596535"], "description"=>"<p>Values in cells are % variance explained (100×<i>r</i><sup>2</sup>) for pairwise correlations over a 259-year common period (1750–2008). Locations arranged by latitude from north (left and top) to south (right and bottom) within species.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "redwood", "tree-ring", "chronologies", "relationships", "euclidean", "distances"], "article_id"=>1107211, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_among_redwood_tree_ring_chronologies_and_relationships_with_Euclidean_distances_between_locations_/1107211", "title"=>"Correlations among redwood tree-ring chronologies and relationships with Euclidean distances between locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596552"], "description"=>"<p>Bootstrapped correlations and response functions of residual tree-ring chronologies against monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature conducted over a 114-year common period (1895–2008). Thicker black lines indicate correlation values. Thin dotted lines represent cutoff for statistical significance (<i>P</i><0.01). Colored circles show months with significant correlations and response functions. Grey lines and blue circles represent minimum temperature. Letters indicate 18 months from May of previous year to October of current year. Locations arranged by latitude from north (top) to south (bottom).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "sensitivities"], "article_id"=>1107228, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_climate_sensitivities_for_six_Sequoiadendron_giganteum_locations_/1107228", "title"=>"Summary of climate sensitivities for six <i>Sequoiadendron giganteum</i> locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596549"], "description"=>"<p>Summer cloudiness (i.e., airport fog with cloud base ≤400 m elevation) reconstructed by Johnstone and Dawson <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545#pone.0102545-Johnstone2\" target=\"_blank\">[42]</a> for June–September over a 108-year common period (1901–2008). Dotted line represents cutoff for statistical significance (<i>P</i><0.01).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "residual", "tree-ring", "chronologies", "reconstructed", "cloudiness"], "article_id"=>1107225, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_residual_tree_ring_chronologies_and_reconstructed_summer_cloudiness_for_eight_Sequoia_sempervirens_locations_/1107225", "title"=>"Correlations between residual tree-ring chronologies and reconstructed summer cloudiness for eight <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596547"], "description"=>"<p>Bootstrapped correlations and response functions of residual tree-ring chronologies against monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature conducted over a 114-year common period (1895–2008). Thicker black lines indicate correlation values. Thin dotted lines represent cutoff for statistical significance (<i>P</i><0.01). Colored circles show months with significant correlations and response functions. Grey lines and blue circles represent minimum temperature. Letters indicate 20 months from March of previous year to October of current year. Locations arranged by latitude from north (top) to south (bottom).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "sensitivities"], "article_id"=>1107223, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_climate_sensitivities_for_eight_Sequoia_sempervirens_locations_/1107223", "title"=>"Summary of climate sensitivities for eight <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596520"], "description"=>"<p>Filled circles are <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> locations and open circles are <i>Sequoiadendron giganteum</i> locations. Precipitation values for each location are 114-year averages (1895–2008) at 800-m resolution using PRISM data <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545#pone.0102545-PRISM1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>. Red-shaded areas indicate native ranges of <i>Sequoia sempervirens</i> (left) and <i>Sequoiadendron giganteum</i> (right), and stars denote sampling locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "geographic", "14", "locations", "redwood"], "article_id"=>1107196, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_annual_precipitation_elevation_and_geographic_distribution_of_14_locations_for_two_redwood_species_/1107196", "title"=>"Average annual precipitation, elevation, and geographic distribution of 14 locations for two redwood species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596557"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics and tree-ring sampling intensity for two species at 14 locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "tree-ring", "sampling", "14"], "article_id"=>1107233, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_and_tree_ring_sampling_intensity_for_two_species_at_14_locations_/1107233", "title"=>"Characteristics and tree-ring sampling intensity for two species at 14 locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1596555"], "description"=>"<p>Product-moment correlations (r) for the common period 1760 to 1980, with statistically significant correlations (r≥0.16, P<0.01) highlighted in bold.</p><p>Species: PSME, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir); CHLA, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Port Orford cedar); JUOC, Juniperus occidentalis (Western juniper); PIPO, Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine); QUDG, Quercus douglasii (blue oak); PIJE, Pinus jeffreyi (Jeffrey pine).</p><p>Locations listed in descending order of latitude by species. States: WA, Washington; OR, Oregon; CA, California.</p><p>Northern SESE = JS, PC, RNP, HR; Southernmost SESE = LH; Unified SEGI = all SEGI locations.</p><p>All chronologies accessed via International Tree Ring Data Bank, except Black’s two unpublished PSME chronologies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "dendrochronology", "Plant ecology", "Plant-environment interactions", "organisms", "plants", "trees", "conifers", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "Dendroclimatology", "drought", "tree-ring", "indices", "sese", "segi", "american"], "article_id"=>1107231, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Allyson L. Carroll", "Stephen C. Sillett", "Russell D. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102545.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlations_between_tree_ring_indices_of_SESE_and_SEGI_and_six_other_western_North_American_tree_species_/1107231", "title"=>"Correlations between tree-ring indices of SESE and SEGI and six other western North American tree species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-16 02:50:19"}

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