The Welfare Consequences and Efficacy of Training Pet Dogs with Remote Electronic Training Collars in Comparison to Reward Based Training
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{"title"=>"The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jonathan J.", "last_name"=>"Cooper", "scopus_author_id"=>"55471740900"}, {"first_name"=>"Nina", "last_name"=>"Cracknell", "scopus_author_id"=>"24334693100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica", "last_name"=>"Hardiman", "scopus_author_id"=>"37090680600"}, {"first_name"=>"Hannah", "last_name"=>"Wright", "scopus_author_id"=>"53985885800"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel", "last_name"=>"Mills", "scopus_author_id"=>"55963188300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84906963035", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0102722", "sgr"=>"84906963035", "pmid"=>"25184218", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600017404"}, "id"=>"e9a50f7a-f0d8-3e25-b9b5-dd08c4a0786d", "abstract"=>"This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward based training.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/welfare-consequences-efficacy-training-pet-dogs-remote-electronic-training-collars-comparison-reward", "reader_count"=>80, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>18, "Student > Master"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>18, "Student > Master"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Philosophy"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>14, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>7, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Italy"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659609"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of owners in each response category who would continue to use the training methods to address the referred behaviour.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Group B", "Control Group B", "Group C", "Remote Electronic Training Collars", "Pet Dog Trainers", "Training Pet Dogs", "Group C dogs", "15 minute training sessions", "63 pet dogs", "uk"], "article_id"=>1159584, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jonathan J. Cooper", "Nina Cracknell", "Jessica Hardiman", "Hannah Wright", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102722.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_owners_in_each_response_category_who_would_continue_to_use_the_training_methods_to_address_the_referred_behaviour_/1159584", "title"=>"Percentage of owners in each response category who would continue to use the training methods to address the referred behaviour.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:01:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659611"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of owners in each response category who reported they were confident of continuing to use the training methods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Group B", "Control Group B", "Group C", "Remote Electronic Training Collars", "Pet Dog Trainers", "Training Pet Dogs", "Group C dogs", "15 minute training sessions", "63 pet dogs", "uk"], "article_id"=>1159586, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jonathan J. Cooper", "Nina Cracknell", "Jessica Hardiman", "Hannah Wright", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102722.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_owners_in_each_response_category_who_reported_they_were_confident_of_continuing_to_use_the_training_methods_/1159586", "title"=>"Percentage of owners in each response category who reported they were confident of continuing to use the training methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:01:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659613", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659614"], "description"=>"<div><p>This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4–5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward based training.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Group B", "Control Group B", "Group C", "Remote Electronic Training Collars", "Pet Dog Trainers", "Training Pet Dogs", "Group C dogs", "15 minute training sessions", "63 pet dogs", "uk"], "article_id"=>1159588, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jonathan J. Cooper", "Nina Cracknell", "Jessica Hardiman", "Hannah Wright", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102722.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102722.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Welfare_Consequences_and_Efficacy_of_Training_Pet_Dogs_with_Remote_Electronic_Training_Collars_in_Comparison_to_Reward_Based_Training_/1159588", "title"=>"The Welfare Consequences and Efficacy of Training Pet Dogs with Remote Electronic Training Collars in Comparison to Reward Based Training", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:01:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659599"], "description"=>"<p>Log<sub>10</sub> salivary cortisol (mean ± SE) on arrival at training centre (Sample 0), following training without e-collar when dogs were allowed free exercise (Sample 1), 15 minutes following training with an activated e-collar (Sample 2) and 40 minutes following training with e-collars (Sample 3).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Group B", "Control Group B", "Group C", "Remote Electronic Training Collars", "Pet Dog Trainers", "Training Pet Dogs", "Group C dogs", "15 minute training sessions", "63 pet dogs", "uk"], "article_id"=>1159574, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jonathan J. Cooper", "Nina Cracknell", "Jessica Hardiman", "Hannah Wright", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102722.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Log_10_salivary_cortisol_mean_177_SE_on_arrival_at_training_centre_Sample_0_following_training_without_e_collar_when_dogs_were_allowed_free_exercise_Sample_1_15_minutes_following_training_with_an_activated_e_collar_Sample_2_and_40_minutes_following_train/1159574", "title"=>"Log<sub>10</sub> salivary cortisol (mean ± SE) on arrival at training centre (Sample 0), following training without e-collar when dogs were allowed free exercise (Sample 1), 15 minutes following training with an activated e-collar (Sample 2) and 40 minutes following training with e-collars (Sample 3).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:01:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659603"], "description"=>"<p>Scatter plot of rate of vocalisations per minute against average collar settings (Stimulus intensity) used during training for the two collars (W being Sportdog SD-1825E (n = 11) and X being Dogtra 1210 NCP (n = 10)) used with Group A dogs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Group B", "Control Group B", "Group C", "Remote Electronic Training Collars", "Pet Dog Trainers", "Training Pet Dogs", "Group C dogs", "15 minute training sessions", "63 pet dogs", "uk"], "article_id"=>1159578, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jonathan J. Cooper", "Nina Cracknell", "Jessica Hardiman", "Hannah Wright", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102722.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Scatter_plot_of_rate_of_vocalisations_per_minute_against_average_collar_settings_Stimulus_intensity_used_during_training_for_the_two_collars_W_being_Sportdog_SD_1825E_n_8202_8202_11_and_X_being_Dogtra_1210_NCP_n_8202_8202_10_used_with_Group_A_dogs_/1159578", "title"=>"Scatter plot of rate of vocalisations per minute against average collar settings (Stimulus intensity) used during training for the two collars (W being Sportdog SD-1825E (n = 11) and X being Dogtra 1210 NCP (n = 10)) used with Group A dogs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:01:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659606"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of owners in each response category indicating that training was effective at improving dog's referred behaviour.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Group B", "Control Group B", "Group C", "Remote Electronic Training Collars", "Pet Dog Trainers", "Training Pet Dogs", "Group C dogs", "15 minute training sessions", "63 pet dogs", "uk"], "article_id"=>1159581, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jonathan J. Cooper", "Nina Cracknell", "Jessica Hardiman", "Hannah Wright", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102722.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_owners_in_each_response_category_indicating_that_training_was_effective_at_improving_dog_s_referred_behaviour_/1159581", "title"=>"Percentage of owners in each response category indicating that training was effective at improving dog's referred behaviour.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:01:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659607"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of owners in each response category who were satisfied with the training methods used.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Group B", "Control Group B", "Group C", "Remote Electronic Training Collars", "Pet Dog Trainers", "Training Pet Dogs", "Group C dogs", "15 minute training sessions", "63 pet dogs", "uk"], "article_id"=>1159582, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jonathan J. Cooper", "Nina Cracknell", "Jessica Hardiman", "Hannah Wright", "Daniel Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102722.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_owners_in_each_response_category_who_were_satisfied_with_the_training_methods_used_/1159582", "title"=>"Percentage of owners in each response category who were satisfied with the training methods used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:01:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"77", "full-text"=>"90", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"110", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"64", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"18", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"51", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"226", "full-text"=>"317", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"137", "full-text"=>"172", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"179", "full-text"=>"237", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"69", "full-text"=>"77", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"73", "full-text"=>"105", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"117", "full-text"=>"145", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"71", "full-text"=>"87", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"195", "full-text"=>"288", "pdf"=>"37", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"92", "full-text"=>"107", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"115", "full-text"=>"125", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"68", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"137", "full-text"=>"202", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"603", "full-text"=>"670", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"155", "full-text"=>"193", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"137", "full-text"=>"176", "pdf"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"224", "full-text"=>"248", "pdf"=>"22", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"163", "full-text"=>"188", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"146", "full-text"=>"188", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"107", "full-text"=>"127", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"123", "full-text"=>"158", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"271", "full-text"=>"308", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"149", "full-text"=>"187", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"156", "full-text"=>"252", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"179", "full-text"=>"211", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"158", "full-text"=>"179", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"196", "full-text"=>"244", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"145", "full-text"=>"166", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"159", "full-text"=>"175", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Veterinary science", "average_usage"=>[401]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[329]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[300]}]}
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