The Challenge of Living On: Psychopathology and Its Mediating Influence on the Readjustment of Former Child Soldiers
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{"title"=>"The challenge of living on: Psychopathology and its mediating influence on the readjustment of former child soldiers", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Verena", "last_name"=>"Ertl", "scopus_author_id"=>"8902700900"}, {"first_name"=>"Anett", "last_name"=>"Pfeiffer", "scopus_author_id"=>"36341004100"}, {"first_name"=>"Elisabeth", "last_name"=>"Schauer-Kaiser", "scopus_author_id"=>"55209880900"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Elbert", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006641802"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank", "last_name"=>"Neuner", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603026224"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904694152", "pui"=>"373596279", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0102786", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84904694152", "pmid"=>"25054324"}, "id"=>"db09fb44-e50e-31c5-bdfa-be44c7b93514", "abstract"=>"Current civil wars are characterized by the increasing involvement of civilian populations and the systematic employment of child soldiers. An example of such wars was the conflict in Northern Uganda, where the war-affected population is still challenged by the reintegration of formerly abducted children and youths. A cross-sectional, population-based survey, using a multistage cluster sampling approach of 1,113 Northern Ugandans aged between 12 and 25 in camps for internally displaced persons and locally validated instruments was conducted to assess symptoms and diagnoses of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and probable Depression in war-affected, as well as formerly abducted individuals. Further objectives were to determine predictors of psychopathology and to relate indicators of maladjustment (i.e., impairments in daily and community functioning, somatic complaints, suicidality, aggressiveness and discrimination) to abduction, level of exposure to violence and psychopathology. 43% of the sample reported abduction by the rebel army. Exposure to violence among this group was higher than for non-abducted youths (t = 28.05; p<.001). PTSD point prevalence rates were 25% among former child soldiers and 7% among the comparison group. High suicidal ideation was present in 16% and 6% respectively. A higher amount of experienced and witnessed event-types (β = . 32. p<.001), loss of first-degree relatives (β = .13. p<.001) and the number of event-types involving forced perpetration (β = .23. p<.001) were identified as risk factors of PTSD symptoms in former child soldiers. The associations between abductee-status and indicators of maladjustment were fully mediated by level of trauma exposure and psychopathology. Results show that child soldiering and its psychological sequelae affect a substantial proportion of children and youths. After release or flight, their readjustment depends at least partly on their level of mental traumatization.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/challenge-living-psychopathology-mediating-influence-readjustment-former-child-soldiers", "reader_count"=>74, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>27, "Social Sciences"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>16}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>17}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>27}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>10}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606059"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes.</i></p>a<p>maximum score = 36.</p>b<p>t-test for unequal variances.</p>c<p>maximum score = 15.</p>d<p>maximum score = 11.</p>e<p>maximum score = 6.</p>f<p>nonparametric Mann-Whitney-U-Test.</p>g<p>maximum score = 4.</p>h<p>maximum score = 51.</p>i<p>maximum score = 8.</p>j<p>maximum score = 12.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Clinical psychology", "Psychological stress", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "Anxiety disorders", "Post-traumatic stress disorder", "Mood disorders", "depression", "Adolescent psychiatry", "Maladjustment", "suicide", "psychopathology", "indicators", "abduction"], "article_id"=>1115280, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Verena Ertl", "Anett Pfeiffer", "Elisabeth Schauer-Kaiser", "Thomas Elbert", "Frank Neuner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102786.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Traumatic_Event_load_Psychopathology_and_Indicators_of_Maladjustment_by_Abduction_Status_n_8202_8202_1113_/1115280", "title"=>"Traumatic Event-load, Psychopathology and Indicators of Maladjustment by Abduction Status (n = 1113).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 02:51:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606056"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Lighter shades of grey within gender indicate witnessed event-types, darker shades of grey indicate experienced event-types.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Clinical psychology", "Psychological stress", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "Anxiety disorders", "Post-traumatic stress disorder", "Mood disorders", "depression", "Adolescent psychiatry", "Maladjustment", "suicide", "traumatic", "event-types", "soldiers", "war-affected", "youths"], "article_id"=>1115277, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Verena Ertl", "Anett Pfeiffer", "Elisabeth Schauer-Kaiser", "Thomas Elbert", "Frank Neuner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102786.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>45, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequencies_of_Traumatic_Event_types_for_Former_Child_Soldiers_and_War_affected_Youths_by_Gender_/1115277", "title"=>"Frequencies of Traumatic Event-types for Former Child Soldiers and War-affected Youths by Gender.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 02:51:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606057"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes</i>. <sup>a</sup> Standardized regression coefficients predicting maladjustment by abduction, neglecting the mediating influences of traumatic exposure and psychopathology. <sup>b</sup> Taking mediation into account the direct effect of abduction on maladjustment becomes irrelevant. Symbols indicate significance: * <i>p</i><.05. **<i>p</i><.01. *** <i>p</i><.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Clinical psychology", "Psychological stress", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "Anxiety disorders", "Post-traumatic stress disorder", "Mood disorders", "depression", "Adolescent psychiatry", "Maladjustment", "suicide", "mediation", "composite", "measures", "psychopathology", "males", "females"], "article_id"=>1115278, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Verena Ertl", "Anett Pfeiffer", "Elisabeth Schauer-Kaiser", "Thomas Elbert", "Frank Neuner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102786.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>182, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multiple_Step_Multiple_Mediation_Models_for_Composite_Measures_of_Psychopathology_and_Maladjustment_for_males_left_and_females_right_/1115278", "title"=>"Multiple Step Multiple Mediation Models for Composite Measures of Psychopathology and Maladjustment for males (left) and females (right).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 02:51:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606060"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes.</i></p>a<p>Full model's adjusted <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = .30; <i>F</i> (10, 463) = 21.58, <i>p</i><.0001.</p>b<p>Full model's adjusted <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = .15; <i>F</i> (9,1103) = 22.89, <i>p</i><.0001:</p>c<p>Full model's adjusted <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = .31; <i>F</i> (10, 463) = 22.06, <i>p</i><.0001.</p>d<p>Full model's adjusted <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = .19; <i>F</i> (9, 1103) = 30.50, <i>p</i><.0001.</p><p>Zero-order correlations are represented by Spearman's ρ for continuous predictor variables and point-biserial correlations for dichotomous predictor variables. Symbols indicate significance:</p><p>*<i>p</i><.05.</p><p>**<i>p</i><.01.</p><p>***<i>p</i><.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Clinical psychology", "Psychological stress", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "Anxiety disorders", "Post-traumatic stress disorder", "Mood disorders", "depression", "Adolescent psychiatry", "Maladjustment", "suicide", "beta", "coefficients", "regression", "ptsd"], "article_id"=>1115281, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Verena Ertl", "Anett Pfeiffer", "Elisabeth Schauer-Kaiser", "Thomas Elbert", "Frank Neuner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102786.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Standardized_Beta_Coefficients_Resulting_from_Multiple_Regression_Models_on_PTSD_and_Depression_Symptoms_/1115281", "title"=>"Standardized Beta Coefficients Resulting from Multiple Regression Models on PTSD and Depression Symptoms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 02:51:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1606058"], "description"=>"<p><i>Notes.</i></p>a<p>likelihood ratio χ<sup>2</sup>.</p>b<p>in Euro.</p>c<p>nonparametric Mann-Whitney-U-Test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["psychology", "Clinical psychology", "Psychological stress", "epidemiology", "Clinical epidemiology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "Anxiety disorders", "Post-traumatic stress disorder", "Mood disorders", "depression", "Adolescent psychiatry", "Maladjustment", "suicide", "abduction"], "article_id"=>1115279, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Verena Ertl", "Anett Pfeiffer", "Elisabeth Schauer-Kaiser", "Thomas Elbert", "Frank Neuner"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102786.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_Sample_by_Abduction_Status_n_8202_8202_1113_/1115279", "title"=>"Characteristics of the Sample by Abduction Status (n = 1113).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-23 02:51:38"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[302]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Geographical locations", "average_usage"=>[298]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Political science", "average_usage"=>[443, 776]}]}
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