Effectiveness of Low Emission Zones: Large Scale Analysis of Changes in Environmental NO2, NO and NOx Concentrations in 17 German Cities
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{"title"=>"Effectiveness of low emission zones: Large scale analysis of changes in environmental NO2, NO and NOx concentrations in 17 German cities", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Morfeld", "scopus_author_id"=>"6604058692"}, {"first_name"=>"David A.", "last_name"=>"Groneberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004564948"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael F.", "last_name"=>"Spallek", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603148385"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25115911", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0102999", "sgr"=>"84905916246", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905916246", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373752409"}, "id"=>"9db6280a-6045-342a-82af-7cb239464509", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Low Emission Zones (LEZs) are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted from entering. The effectiveness of LEZs to lower ambient exposures is under debate. This study focused on LEZs that restricted cars of Euro 1 standard without appropriate retrofitting systems from entering and estimated LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx ( = NO2+NO).\\n\\nMETHODS: Continuous half-hour and diffuse sampler 4-week average NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations measured inside and outside LEZs in 17 German cities of 6 federal states (2005-2009) were analysed as matched quadruplets (two pairs of simultaneously measured index values inside LEZ and reference values outside LEZ, one pair measured before and one after introducing LEZs with time differences that equal multiples of 364 days) by multiple linear and log-linear fixed-effects regression modelling (covariables: e.g., wind velocity, amount of precipitation, height of inversion base, school holidays, truck-free periods). Additionally, the continuous half-hour data was collapsed into 4-week averages and pooled with the diffuse sampler data to perform joint analysis.\\n\\nRESULTS: More than 3,000,000 quadruplets of continuous measurements (half-hour averages) were identified at 38 index and 45 reference stations. Pooling with diffuse sampler data from 15 index and 10 reference stations lead to more than 4,000 quadruplets for joint analyses of 4-week averages. Mean LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations (reductions) were estimated to be at most -2 µg/m(3) (or -4%). The 4-week averages of NO2 concentrations at index stations after LEZ introduction were 55 µg/m(3) (median and mean values) or 82 µg/m(3) (95th percentile).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: This is the first study investigating comprehensively the effectiveness of LEZs to reduce NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations controlling for most relevant potential confounders. Our analyses indicate that there is a statistically significant, but rather small reduction of NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations associated with LEZs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effectiveness-low-emission-zones-large-scale-analysis-changes-environmental-no2-nox-concentrations-1", "reader_count"=>39, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>10, "Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>9, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>10}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>9}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632217"], "description"=>"<p>The 17 LEZs included into the study are marked with open red circles. The 17 LEZs that were active but were excluded according to protocol are indicated by full red circles. Capital cities of the Federal states are shown by black squares. This is a modification of the map as published at URL <a href=\"http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/umweltzonen\" target=\"_blank\">www.umweltbundesamt.de/umweltzonen</a>. Date of access: 6th November 2009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136292, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Active_and_investigated_LEZs_in_Germany_December_2009_/1136292", "title"=>"Active and investigated LEZs in Germany, December 2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632218"], "description"=>"<p>The time difference between compared measurement values at day d of the year in period 2 and d+1 of the year in period 1, always with starting time h, is not a full year but 364 days to keep the weekday constant.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136293, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Index_x_zamdh_and_reference_concentration_r_zadh_at_index_measurement_station_m_and_LZ_z_in_observation_period_II_with_active_LEZ_a_8202_8202_1_and_in_observation_period_I_with_inactive_LEZ_a_8202_8202_0_matched_quadruplets_consisting_of_two_index_measur/1136293", "title"=>"Index (x<sub>zamdh</sub>) and reference concentration (r<sub>zadh</sub>) at index measurement station m and LZ z in observation period II with active LEZ (a = 1) and in observation period I with inactive LEZ (a = 0): matched quadruplets consisting of two index measurement values and two reference measurement values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632219"], "description"=>"<p>Ind.diff and Ref.diff denote differences between index measurements and between reference measurements (negative post-pre differences indicate lower values after introduction of LEZ). Concentrations measured in µg/m<sup>3</sup>.</p><p>N: number of quadruplets, Min: minimum, p5: 5<sup>th</sup> percentile, p50: median, mean: arithmetic average, p95: 95<sup>th</sup> percentile, max: maximum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136294, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NO_Quadruplets_of_pooled_continuous_and_diffuse_sampler_NO_measurements_index_stations_Ind_reference_stations_Ref_before_pre_and_after_post_introduction_of_LEZ_/1136294", "title"=>"NO: Quadruplets of pooled continuous and diffuse sampler NO-measurements: index stations (Ind), reference stations (Ref) before (pre) and after (post) introduction of LEZ.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632220"], "description"=>"<p>Regression coefficient, robust standard errors of coefficient, t-statistic, two-sided P-value, and 95%-confidence interval of coefficient. The absolute LEZ effect estimate is given by the coefficient E in µg/m<sup>3</sup> (<0: concentration is lowered by LEZ).</p><p>Covariables: difference in reference stations Ref.diff in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered reference baseline concentration Ref.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered index baseline concentration Ind.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, Diff 1/H = difference in 1/(height of inversion layer) in 1/m, Diff 1/V = 1/(wind velocity+0.01) in (m/s)<sup>−1</sup>, difference in 1/P = 1/(amount of precipitation+0.01) (mm/h)<sup>−1</sup>, centered difference in time Time.diff in years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136295, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NO_Linear_additive_model_1_evaluating_the_quadruplets_of_pooled_continuous_and_diffuse_sampler_NO_measurements_/1136295", "title"=>"NO: Linear (additive) model 1 evaluating the quadruplets of pooled continuous and diffuse sampler NO-measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632221"], "description"=>"<p>Regression coefficient, robust standard errors of coefficient, t-statistic, two-sided P-value, and 95%-confidence interval of coefficient. The absolute LEZ effect estimate is given by the coefficient E in µg/m<sup>3</sup> (<0: concentration is lowered by LEZ).</p><p>Covariables: difference in reference stations Ref.diff in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered reference baseline concentration Ref.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered index baseline concentration Ind.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, Diff 1/H = difference in 1/(height of inversion layer) in 1/m, Diff 1/V = 1/(wind velocity+0.01) in (m/s)<sup>−1</sup>, difference in 1/P = 1/(amount of precipitation+0.01) (mm/h)<sup>−1</sup>, centered difference in time Time.diff in years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136296, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NO_2_Linear_additive_model_1_evaluating_the_quadruplets_of_pooled_continuous_and_diffuse_sampler_NO_2_measurements_/1136296", "title"=>"NO<sub>2</sub>: Linear (additive) model 1 evaluating the quadruplets of pooled continuous and diffuse sampler NO<sub>2</sub>-measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632222"], "description"=>"<p>Regression coefficient, robust standard errors of coefficient, t-statistic, two-sided P-value, and 95%-confidence interval of coefficient. The relative LEZ effect estimate is given by the coefficient E (<1: concentration is lowered by LEZ).</p><p>relative effect E = 0.980, 95% Conf. Interval = 0.975, 0.985.</p><p>Covariables, before taking logs: difference in reference stations Ref.diff in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered reference baseline concentration Ref.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered index baseline concentration Ind.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, 1/H = 1/(height of inversion layer) in 1/m, 1/V = 1/(wind velocity+0.01) in (m/s)<sup>−1</sup>, 1/P = 1/(amount of precipitation+0.01) (mm/h)<sup>−1</sup>, centered difference in time Time.diff in years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136297, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NO_2_Log_linear_multiplicative_model_1_evaluating_the_quadruplets_of_pooled_continuous_and_diffuse_sampler_NO_2_measurements_/1136297", "title"=>"NO<sub>2</sub>: Log-linear (multiplicative) model 1 evaluating the quadruplets of pooled continuous and diffuse sampler NO<sub>2</sub>-measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632223"], "description"=>"<p>Regression coefficient, robust standard errors of coefficient, t-statistic, two-sided P-value, and 95%-confidence interval of coefficient. The relative LEZ effect estimate is given by the coefficient E (<1: concentration is lowered by LEZ).</p><p>relative effect E = 0.979, 95% Conf. Interval = 0.979, 0.980.</p><p>Covariables, before taking logs: difference in reference stations Ref.diff in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered reference baseline concentration Ref.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered index baseline concentration Ind.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, 1/H = 1/(height of inversion layer) in 1/m, 1/V = 1/(wind velocity+0.01) in (m/s)<sup>−1</sup>, 1/P = 1/(amount of precipitation+0.01) (mm/h)<sup>−1</sup>, centered difference in time Time.diff in years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136298, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NO_2_Log_linear_multiplicative_model_1_evaluating_the_quadruplets_of_continuous_NO_2_measurements_/1136298", "title"=>"NO<sub>2</sub>: Log-linear (multiplicative) model 1 evaluating the quadruplets of continuous NO<sub>2</sub>-measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632224"], "description"=>"<p>Ind.diff and Ref.diff denote differences between index measurements and between reference measurements (negative post-pre differences indicate lower values after introduction of LEZ). Concentrations measured in µg/m<sup>3</sup>.</p><p>N: number of quadruplets, Min: minimum, p5: 5<sup>th</sup> percentile, p50: median, mean: arithmetic average, p95: 95<sup>th</sup> percentile, max: maximum.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136299, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NO_2_Quadruplets_of_pooled_continuous_and_diffuse_sampler_NO_2_measurements_index_stations_Ind_reference_stations_Ref_before_pre_and_after_post_introduction_of_LEZ_/1136299", "title"=>"NO<sub>2</sub>: Quadruplets of pooled continuous and diffuse sampler NO<sub>2</sub>-measurements: index stations (Ind), reference stations (Ref) before (pre) and after (post) introduction of LEZ.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632225"], "description"=>"<p>Ind.diff and Ref.diff denote differences between index measurements and between reference measurements (negative post-pre differences indicate lower values after introduction of LEZ). Concentrations measured in µg/m<sup>3</sup>.</p><p>N: number of quadruplets; Min: minimum, p5: 5<sup>th</sup> percentile, p50: median, mean: arithmetic average, p95: 95<sup>th</sup> percentile, max: maximum, unit:</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136300, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NO_2_Quadruplets_of_continuous_NO_2_measurements_index_stations_Ind_reference_stations_Ref_before_pre_and_after_post_introduction_of_LEZ_/1136300", "title"=>"NO<sub>2</sub>: Quadruplets of continuous NO<sub>2</sub>-measurements: index stations (Ind), reference stations (Ref) before (pre) and after (post) introduction of LEZ.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632226"], "description"=>"<p>Regression coefficient, robust standard errors of coefficient, t-statistic, two-sided P-value, and 95%-confidence interval of coefficient. The absolute LEZ effect estimate is given by the coefficient E in µg/m<sup>3</sup> (<0: concentration is lowered by LEZ).</p><p>Covariables: difference in reference stations Ref.diff in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered reference baseline concentration Ref.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered index baseline concentration Ind.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, Diff 1/H = difference in 1/(height of inversion layer) in 1/m, Diff 1/V = 1/(wind velocity+0.01) in (m/s)<sup>−1</sup>, difference in 1/P = 1/(amount of precipitation+0.01) (mm/h)<sup>−1</sup>, centered difference in time Time.diff in years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136301, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NO_2_Linear_additive_model_1_evaluating_the_quadruplets_of_continuous_NO_2_measurements_/1136301", "title"=>"NO<sub>2</sub>: Linear (additive) model 1 evaluating the quadruplets of continuous NO<sub>2</sub>-measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632227"], "description"=>"<p>Number of index and reference stations per gaseous component (NO<sub>2</sub>, NO, NO<sub>x</sub>) suitable for analysis of the first tier of LEZs until Dec 31, 2009.</p>a<p>continuous measurements, half-hour concentration averages.</p>b<p>diffuse samplers, longer sampling periods (over weeks).</p>c<p>all data combined (continuous, diffuse), adjusted to concentration averages over 4-weeks periods.</p>d<p>reference station used more than once in comparisons to index stations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136302, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_low_emission_zones_LEZs_in_German_cities_included_for_analysis_17_LEZs_in_6_federal_states_/1136302", "title"=>"Overview of low emission zones (LEZs) in German cities included for analysis: 17 LEZs in 6 federal states.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632228"], "description"=>"<p>Model 1 covariables: difference in reference stations Ref.diff in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered reference baseline concentration Ref.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, centered index baseline concentration Ind.base in µg/m<sup>3</sup>, Diff 1/H = difference in 1/(height of inversion layer) in 1/m, Diff 1/V = 1/(wind velocity+0.01) in (m/s)<sup>−1</sup>, difference in 1/P = 1/(amount of precipitation+0.01) (mm/h)<sup>−1</sup>, centered difference in time Time.diff in years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136303, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summarized_Results_on_Nitrogen_Oxides_/1136303", "title"=>"Summarized Results on Nitrogen Oxides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632229"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of studies estimating the effect of LEZs on NO<sub>2</sub> concentrations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136304, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999.t011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_studies_estimating_the_effect_of_LEZs_on_NO_2_concentrations_/1136304", "title"=>"Overview of studies estimating the effect of LEZs on NO<sub>2</sub> concentrations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1632230"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Low Emission Zones (LEZs) are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted from entering. The effectiveness of LEZs to lower ambient exposures is under debate. This study focused on LEZs that restricted cars of Euro 1 standard without appropriate retrofitting systems from entering and estimated LEZ effects on NO<sub>2</sub>, NO, and NO<sub>x</sub> ( = NO<sub>2</sub>+NO).</p><p>Methods</p><p>Continuous half-hour and diffuse sampler 4-week average NO<sub>2</sub>, NO, and NO<sub>x</sub> concentrations measured inside and outside LEZs in 17 German cities of 6 federal states (2005–2009) were analysed as matched quadruplets (two pairs of simultaneously measured index values inside LEZ and reference values outside LEZ, one pair measured before and one after introducing LEZs with time differences that equal multiples of 364 days) by multiple linear and log-linear fixed-effects regression modelling (covariables: e.g., wind velocity, amount of precipitation, height of inversion base, school holidays, truck-free periods). Additionally, the continuous half-hour data was collapsed into 4-week averages and pooled with the diffuse sampler data to perform joint analysis.</p><p>Results</p><p>More than 3,000,000 quadruplets of continuous measurements (half-hour averages) were identified at 38 index and 45 reference stations. Pooling with diffuse sampler data from 15 index and 10 reference stations lead to more than 4,000 quadruplets for joint analyses of 4-week averages. Mean LEZ effects on NO<sub>2</sub>, NO, and NO<sub>x</sub> concentrations (reductions) were estimated to be at most −2 µg/m<sup>3</sup> (or −4%). The 4-week averages of NO<sub>2</sub> concentrations at index stations after LEZ introduction were 55 µg/m<sup>3</sup> (median and mean values) or 82 µg/m<sup>3</sup> (95th percentile).</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>This is the first study investigating comprehensively the effectiveness of LEZs to reduce NO<sub>2</sub>, NO, and NO<sub>x</sub> concentrations controlling for most relevant potential confounders. Our analyses indicate that there is a statistically significant, but rather small reduction of NO<sub>2</sub>, NO, and NO<sub>x</sub> concentrations associated with LEZs.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Cities BackgroundLow Emission Zones", "45 reference stations", "10 reference stations", "sampler data", "Low Emission Zones", "LEZ effects", "Large Scale Analysis", "NOx concentrations"], "article_id"=>1136305, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Peter Morfeld", "David A. Groneberg", "Michael F. Spallek"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102999", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effectiveness_of_Low_Emission_Zones_Large_Scale_Analysis_of_Changes_in_Environmental_NO_2_NO_and_NO_x_Concentrations_in_17_German_Cities/1136305", "title"=>"Effectiveness of Low Emission Zones: Large Scale Analysis of Changes in Environmental NO<sub>2</sub>, NO and NO<sub>x</sub> Concentrations in 17 German Cities", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-12 03:04:28"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[320]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Civil engineering", "average_usage"=>[271, 430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Energy and power", "average_usage"=>[298, 500]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Transportation", "average_usage"=>[300]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[262]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[259]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[266]}]}
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Net::HTTPInternalServerError

Source
Counter
Time
2019-04-06 02:38:57 UTC
Target URL
http://counter-101.soma.plos.org/api/v1.0/stats/doi/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0102999
Trace

/app/models/concerns/networkable.rb:21:in `get_result'
/app/models/source.rb:165:in `get_data'
/app/models/retrieval_status.rb:47:in `perform_get_data'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:52:in `block (2 levels) in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:51:in `block in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `each'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `perform'