Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
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{"title"=>"Task design influences prosociality in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bailey R.", "last_name"=>"House", "scopus_author_id"=>"51763667300"}, {"first_name"=>"Joan B.", "last_name"=>"Silk", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101639398"}, {"first_name"=>"Susan P.", "last_name"=>"Lambeth", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601971694"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven J.", "last_name"=>"Schapiro", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005687141"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84921758684", "pui"=>"608758905", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0103422", "sgr"=>"84921758684", "pmid"=>"25191860"}, "id"=>"6cf54596-0691-3ff0-b2bf-788c5e9f3a87", "abstract"=>"Chimpanzees confer benefits on group members, both in the wild and in captive populations. Experimental studies of how animals allocate resources can provide useful insights about the motivations underlying prosocial behavior, and understanding the relationship between task design and prosocial behavior provides an important foundation for future research exploring these animals' social preferences. A number of studies have been designed to assess chimpanzees' preferences for outcomes that benefit others (prosocial preferences), but these studies vary greatly in both the results obtained and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing these animals' social motivations themselves. We introduce a task design that avoids isolating subjects and allows them to freely decide whether to participate in the experiment. We explore key elements of the methods utilized in previous experiments in an effort to evaluate two possibilities that have been offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a) chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b) evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more \"complex\" experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more components or alternative choices). Our results suggest that the complexity of laboratory tasks may generate observed variation in prosocial behavior in laboratory experiments, and highlights the need for more naturalistic research designs while also providing one example of such a paradigm.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/task-design-influences-prosociality-captive-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-3", "reader_count"=>30, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Psychology"=>12, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664020"], "description"=>"<p>We label these distributions using the convention of “(Actor's payoff)/(Recipient's payoff).”</p><p>Payoff distributions used in Study 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivation", "laboratory", "research", "chimpanzees", "task Design Influences Prosociality", "task design", "experiment", "understanding", "preference", "prosocial behavior", "choice", "method", "benefit", "other"], "article_id"=>1163227, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bailey R. House", "Joan B. Silk", "Susan P. Lambeth", "Steven J. Schapiro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Payoff_distributions_used_in_Study_1_/1163227", "title"=>"Payoff distributions used in Study 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-05 03:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664019"], "description"=>"<p>(3A) Proportion of trials during which actors selected the prosocial outcome (for <i>1/1 v. 1/0</i>, <i>1/1 v. 1/0(1)</i>, and <i>0/1 v. 0/0</i> conditions) or the self-maximizing outcome (for <i>1/1 v. 0/1</i>), on trials where the Actor selected one of the two options. If Actors were indifferent to the payoffs obtained by recipients, they would be expected to pull the handle on half of the trials (proportion of .50). Numbers of subjects and observations are listed on the right. (3B) Logistic regressions representing the probability of actors' choices as a function of <i>Actor's Trial Number</i> (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422#pone.0103422.s011\" target=\"_blank\">Table S9</a> for regression model estimates). Solid lines depict the estimated probabilities that actors will select the prosocial or self-maximizing outcome, which are comparable to the proportions from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422#pone-0103422-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3A</a>. Y-axis represents the probability that actors will select the prosocial or self-maximizing outcome, and the x-axis represents the number of trials that an actor has received previously (across all payoff distributions/conditions). The red dotted line depicts the estimated probability that actors will do nothing (i.e., pull neither of the handles) in the <i>0/1 v. 0/0</i> condition (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422#pone.0103422.s012\" target=\"_blank\">Table S10</a> for regression model estimates).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivation", "laboratory", "research", "chimpanzees", "task Design Influences Prosociality", "task design", "experiment", "understanding", "preference", "prosocial behavior", "choice", "method", "benefit", "other"], "article_id"=>1163226, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bailey R. House", "Joan B. Silk", "Susan P. Lambeth", "Steven J. Schapiro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_from_Study_2_/1163226", "title"=>"Data from Study 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-05 03:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664022", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664023", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664024", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664025", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664026", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664027", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664028", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664029", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664030", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664031", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664032", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664033"], "description"=>"<div><p>Chimpanzees confer benefits on group members, both in the wild and in captive populations. Experimental studies of how animals allocate resources can provide useful insights about the motivations underlying prosocial behavior, and understanding the relationship between task design and prosocial behavior provides an important foundation for future research exploring these animals' social preferences. A number of studies have been designed to assess chimpanzees' preferences for outcomes that benefit others (prosocial preferences), but these studies vary greatly in both the results obtained and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing these animals' social motivations themselves. We introduce a task design that avoids isolating subjects and allows them to freely decide whether to participate in the experiment. We explore key elements of the methods utilized in previous experiments in an effort to evaluate two possibilities that have been offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a) chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b) evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more “complex” experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more components or alternative choices). Our results suggest that the complexity of laboratory tasks may generate observed variation in prosocial behavior in laboratory experiments, and highlights the need for more naturalistic research designs while also providing one example of such a paradigm.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivation", "laboratory", "research", "chimpanzees", "task Design Influences Prosociality", "task design", "experiment", "understanding", "preference", "prosocial behavior", "choice", "method", "benefit", "other"], "article_id"=>1163229, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bailey R. House", "Joan B. Silk", "Susan P. Lambeth", "Steven J. Schapiro"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.s012"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Task_Design_Influences_Prosociality_in_Captive_Chimpanzees_Pan_troglodytes_/1163229", "title"=>"Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (<i>Pan troglodytes</i>)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-05 03:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664021"], "description"=>"<p>We label these distributions using the convention of “(Actor's payoff)/(Recipient's payoff).”</p><p>Payoffs distributions used in Study 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivation", "laboratory", "research", "chimpanzees", "task Design Influences Prosociality", "task design", "experiment", "understanding", "preference", "prosocial behavior", "choice", "method", "benefit", "other"], "article_id"=>1163228, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bailey R. House", "Joan B. Silk", "Susan P. Lambeth", "Steven J. Schapiro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Payoffs_distributions_used_in_Study_2_/1163228", "title"=>"Payoffs distributions used in Study 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-05 03:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664018"], "description"=>"<p>(A): The apparatus in the No Access position, before the Actor has pulled either of the two handles. (B): The apparatus in the Access position, after the right handle has been pulled by the Actor, which retracts the left handle so that it becomes inaccessible (i.e., it is now impossible for the Actor to move the left Actor bin and left Recipient bin into the Access position). (1a): left Actor bin. (2a): right Actor bin. (1b): left Recipient bin. (2b): right Recipient bin. (1c): left handle. (2c): right handle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivation", "laboratory", "research", "chimpanzees", "task Design Influences Prosociality", "task design", "experiment", "understanding", "preference", "prosocial behavior", "choice", "method", "benefit", "other"], "article_id"=>1163225, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bailey R. House", "Joan B. Silk", "Susan P. Lambeth", "Steven J. Schapiro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apparatus_used_in_Study_2_/1163225", "title"=>"Apparatus used in Study 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-05 03:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664016"], "description"=>"<p>(1A) Proportions of all trials during which actors pulled the handle to operate the apparatus, for each of payoff distribution. Error bars reflect one SE of the mean but do not control for non-independence, though models suggest there is little between-subjects behavioral variation (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422#pone.0103422.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>). Numbers of subjects and observations are listed on the right. (1B) Logistic functions modeling the effect of <i>Actor's Trial Number</i> on the probability that Actors will pull the handle (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422#pone.0103422.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table S4</a> for regression model estimates). These probabilities are comparable to the proportions from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422#pone-0103422-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 1A</a>. Y-axis represents the probability that actors will pull the handle. X-axis represents the number of trials that an Actor has received previously (across all payoff distributions). Error bars around the red line (modeling the probability of pulling the handle for 0/1 trials) are estimated 95% confidence intervals, and control for non-independence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivation", "laboratory", "research", "chimpanzees", "task Design Influences Prosociality", "task design", "experiment", "understanding", "preference", "prosocial behavior", "choice", "method", "benefit", "other"], "article_id"=>1163223, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bailey R. House", "Joan B. Silk", "Susan P. Lambeth", "Steven J. Schapiro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_from_Study_1_/1163223", "title"=>"Data from Study 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-05 03:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664017"], "description"=>"<p>Proportions of trials during which Actors pulled the handle to operate the apparatus during the Test trials (dark grey bars) and during the Knowledge Probe (light grey bars), for the 0/1 payoff distribution only. Each pair of bars corresponds to one of the Actors who participated in the Knowledge Probe. Values below the x-axis provide means, standard deviations, and sample sizes. Error bars reflect 95% confidence intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivation", "laboratory", "research", "chimpanzees", "task Design Influences Prosociality", "task design", "experiment", "understanding", "preference", "prosocial behavior", "choice", "method", "benefit", "other"], "article_id"=>1163224, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bailey R. House", "Joan B. Silk", "Susan P. Lambeth", "Steven J. Schapiro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_from_Knowledge_Probe_Study_1_/1163224", "title"=>"Data from Knowledge Probe (Study 1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-05 03:08:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1664015"], "description"=>"<p>(A): The apparatus in the No Access position, with bins at rest where animals could not obtain any food. (B): The apparatus in the Access position, with bins pivoted upward so that food rewards were in reach of animals inside the enclosure. Pulling the handle moved the apparatus from No Access (A) to Access (B). While pulling the handle, the Actor could acquire food placed in the Actor bin, but could not reach food in the Recipient bin. If the Actor released the handle both bins returned immediately to the No Access position and any food remaining in the Recipient bin rolled back out of reach.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motivation", "laboratory", "research", "chimpanzees", "task Design Influences Prosociality", "task design", "experiment", "understanding", "preference", "prosocial behavior", "choice", "method", "benefit", "other"], "article_id"=>1163222, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bailey R. House", "Joan B. Silk", "Susan P. Lambeth", "Steven J. Schapiro"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103422.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apparatus_used_in_Study_1_/1163222", "title"=>"Apparatus used in Study 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-05 03:08:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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