Electrophysiological Explorations of the Bilingual Advantage: Evidence from a Stroop Task
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{"title"=>"Electrophysiological explorations of the bilingual advantage: Evidence from a Stroop task", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Emily L.", "last_name"=>"Coderre", "scopus_author_id"=>"23766742900"}, {"first_name"=>"Walter J B", "last_name"=>"Van Heuven", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003726457"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904906953", "pui"=>"373631590", "pmid"=>"25068723", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0103424", "sgr"=>"84904906953"}, "id"=>"1ab98c87-7e01-3326-9636-a760291525f0", "abstract"=>"Bilinguals have been shown to exhibit a performance advantage on executive control tasks, outperforming their monolingual counterparts. Although a wealth of research has investigated this 'bilingual advantage' behaviourally, electrophysiological correlates are lacking. Using EEG with a Stroop task that manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of word and colour presentation, the current study addressed two facets of the bilingual advantage. The possibility that bilinguals experience superior conflict processing relative to monolinguals (a 'conflict-specific advantage') was investigated by comparing behavioural interference effects as well as the amplitude of the Ninc, a conflict-related ERP component occurring from approximately 300-500 ms after the onset of conflict. In contrast, the hypothesis that bilinguals experience domain-general, conflict-independent enhancements in executive processing (a 'non-conflict-specific advantage') was evaluated by comparing the control condition (symbol strings) between groups. There was some significant, but inconsistent, evidence for a conflict-specific bilingual advantage. In contrast, strong evidence emerged for a non-conflict-specific advantage, with bilinguals demonstrating faster RTs and reduced ERP amplitudes on control trials compared to monolinguals. Importantly, when the control stimulus was presented before the colour, ERPs to control trials revealed group differences before the onset of conflict, suggesting differences in the ability to ignore or suppress distracting irrelevant information. This indicates that bilinguals experience superior executive processing even in the absence of conflict and semantic salience, and suggests that the advantage extends to more efficient proactive management of the environment.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/electrophysiological-explorations-bilingual-advantage-evidence-stroop-task", "reader_count"=>65, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>43, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Linguistics"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>43}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>12}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "China"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611743"], "description"=>"<p>Behavioural a) Stroop; b) interference; and c) facilitation effects, and d) the average RTs for control trials averaged over SOAs, for the monolinguals, bilingual L1 and bilingual L2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics"], "article_id"=>1120013, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavioural_data_/1120013", "title"=>"Behavioural data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611742"], "description"=>"<p>Mean RTs (ms) for each group and language.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "rts"], "article_id"=>1120012, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_RTs_ms_for_each_group_and_language_/1120012", "title"=>"Mean RTs (ms) for each group and language.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611751"], "description"=>"<p>Waveforms of control trials at Cz and Pz for each group in the a) 0 ms SOA; and b) −400 ms SOA. Significant differences between the groups, based on running <i>t</i>-tests, are indicated in bars underneath. Shaded regions indicate the windows of significant group differences, and topographic maps show the bilingual – monolingual differences (bilinguals averaged over L1 and L2) averaged across these windows; electrodes showing statistically significant differences (<i>p</i><0.05) between the bilinguals and monolinguals across the specified window are indicated by a black square.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "erp", "waveforms"], "article_id"=>1120021, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_ERP_waveforms_for_control_trials_/1120021", "title"=>"Comparison of ERP waveforms for control trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611747"], "description"=>"<p>Bilinguals L2 English waveforms at Cz and Pz for the a) 0 ms SOA; and b) −400 ms SOA. Significant effects from the running <i>t</i>-tests, within the N<sub>inc</sub> windows (shaded area), are indicated in bars underneath. Topographic maps show the N<sub>inc</sub> components, plus electrodes showing significant differences (<i>p</i><0.05) between incongruent and congruent trials across the specified window.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "l2", "erp"], "article_id"=>1120017, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bilingual_L2_ERP_data_/1120017", "title"=>"Bilingual L2 ERP data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611745"], "description"=>"<p>Bilinguals L1 Chinese waveforms at Cz and Pz for the a) 0 ms SOA; and b) −400 ms SOA. Significant effects from the running <i>t</i>-tests, within the N<sub>inc</sub> windows (shaded area), are indicated in bars underneath. Topographic maps show the N<sub>inc</sub> components, plus electrodes showing significant differences (<i>p</i><0.05) between incongruent and congruent trials across the specified window.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "l1", "erp"], "article_id"=>1120015, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bilingual_L1_ERP_data_/1120015", "title"=>"Bilingual L1 ERP data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611744"], "description"=>"<p>Monolingual English ERP waveforms at Cz and Pz for the a) 0 ms SOA; and b) −400 ms SOA. Significant effects from the running <i>t</i>-tests, within the N<sub>inc</sub> windows (shaded area), are indicated in bars underneath. Topographic maps show the N<sub>inc</sub> components (incongruent vs. congruent), with black dots indicating electrodes that show significant differences (<i>p</i><0.05) between the average amplitudes of incongruent and congruent trials across the specified window.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "erp"], "article_id"=>1120014, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Monolingual_ERP_data_/1120014", "title"=>"Monolingual ERP data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611741"], "description"=>"<p>Example of the trial sequence for a) a <b>−</b>400<b> </b>ms SOA congruent trial; and b) a 0<b> </b>ms SOA control trial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics"], "article_id"=>1120011, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_trial_sequence_/1120011", "title"=>"Example trial sequence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611755"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of the N<sub>inc</sub> windows, including peak latencies in the difference waves (averaged over Cz and Pz) for each group and SOA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "latencies", "waves", "cz"], "article_id"=>1120025, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_N_inc_windows_including_peak_latencies_in_the_difference_waves_averaged_over_Cz_and_Pz_for_each_group_and_SOA_/1120025", "title"=>"Summary of the N<sub>inc</sub> windows, including peak latencies in the difference waves (averaged over Cz and Pz) for each group and SOA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611753"], "description"=>"<p>RT analyses: Results of the 2 (SOA)×2 (group) ANOVAs for each effect and group comparison.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "anovas"], "article_id"=>1120023, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RT_analyses_Results_of_the_2_SOA_215_2_group_ANOVAs_for_each_effect_and_group_comparison_/1120023", "title"=>"RT analyses: Results of the 2 (SOA)×2 (group) ANOVAs for each effect and group comparison.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611754"], "description"=>"<p>Error analyses: Results of the 2 (SOA)×3 (congruency) ANOVAs for each group comparison.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "anovas"], "article_id"=>1120024, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Error_analyses_Results_of_the_2_SOA_215_3_congruency_ANOVAs_for_each_group_comparison_/1120024", "title"=>"Error analyses: Results of the 2 (SOA)×3 (congruency) ANOVAs for each group comparison.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611752"], "description"=>"<p>RT analyses: Statistical comparisons of Stroop, interference, and facilitation effects, after Bonferroni-corrections, for each group and language.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics", "comparisons", "facilitation"], "article_id"=>1120022, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RT_analyses_Statistical_comparisons_of_Stroop_interference_and_facilitation_effects_after_Bonferroni_corrections_for_each_group_and_language_/1120022", "title"=>"RT analyses: Statistical comparisons of Stroop, interference, and facilitation effects, after Bonferroni-corrections, for each group and language.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1611749"], "description"=>"<p>Difference waves (incongruent minus congruent) at Cz and Pz for each group in the a) 0 ms; and b) −400 ms SOAs. Significant differences between the groups, as evaluated by running <i>t</i>-tests, are plotted in bars below. Shaded regions show the approximate N<sub>inc</sub> windows for each SOA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "neuropsychology", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Mental health and psychiatry", "linguistics", "Psycholinguistics"], "article_id"=>1120019, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Emily L. Coderre", "Walter J. B. van Heuven"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103424.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_ERP_difference_waves_/1120019", "title"=>"ERP difference waves.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-28 02:57:08"}

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Relative Metric

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