Specific Learning Disorder: Prevalence and Gender Differences
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{"title"=>"Specific learning disorder: Prevalence and gender differences", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kristina", "last_name"=>"Moll", "scopus_author_id"=>"23489332300"}, {"first_name"=>"Sarah", "last_name"=>"Kunze", "scopus_author_id"=>"35774336000"}, {"first_name"=>"Nina", "last_name"=>"Neuhoff", "scopus_author_id"=>"34980000800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer", "last_name"=>"Bruder", "scopus_author_id"=>"34979855500"}, {"first_name"=>"Gerd", "last_name"=>"Schulte-Körne", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004355974"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905015619", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0103537", "sgr"=>"84905015619", "isbn"=>"1932-6203(Electronic)", "pmid"=>"25072465", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373644974"}, "id"=>"9e4229a1-fddc-3dfa-8d36-a0db45b43724", "abstract"=>"Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/specific-learning-disorder-prevalence-gender-differences-5", "reader_count"=>117, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>28, "Student > Bachelor"=>23, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>4, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>14, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>50, "Social Sciences"=>13, "Linguistics"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>14}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>50}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>16}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>3}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1613099"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note:</i> Between = children who fulfill deficit criteria for the relevant domain (RD, SD or AD), but score between the deficit criterion and the criterion for normal performance on at least one other measure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Academic skills", "literacy", "numeracy", "psychology", "rates", "disorders", "cutoff"], "article_id"=>1120816, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Kristina Moll", "Sarah Kunze", "Nina Neuhoff", "Jennifer Bruder", "Gerd Schulte-Körne"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103537.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_rates_N_8202_8202_1633_for_specific_learning_disorders_including_cutoff_for_normal_performance_/1120816", "title"=>"Prevalence rates (N = 1633) for specific learning disorders including cutoff for normal performance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-29 02:50:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1613102"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note:</i> sd = standard deviation; RD = Reading Deficit; SD = Spelling Deficit; AD = Arithmetic Deficit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Academic skills", "literacy", "numeracy", "psychology", "prevalence", "studies", "comorbidity", "rates", "disorders"], "article_id"=>1120819, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Kristina Moll", "Sarah Kunze", "Nina Neuhoff", "Jennifer Bruder", "Gerd Schulte-Körne"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103537.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_prevalence_studies_reporting_comorbidity_rates_for_learning_disorders_based_on_representative_samples_/1120819", "title"=>"Overview prevalence studies reporting comorbidity rates for learning disorders based on representative samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-29 02:50:34"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1613101"], "description"=>"<p>Expected and observed number of comorbid cases for the three cutoff criteria.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Academic skills", "literacy", "numeracy", "psychology", "observed", "comorbid", "cases", "cutoff"], "article_id"=>1120818, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Kristina Moll", "Sarah Kunze", "Nina Neuhoff", "Jennifer Bruder", "Gerd Schulte-Körne"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103537.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expected_and_observed_number_of_comorbid_cases_for_the_three_cutoff_criteria_/1120818", "title"=>"Expected and observed number of comorbid cases for the three cutoff criteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-29 02:50:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1613098"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note:</i> sd = standard deviation; CI = confidence interval; RD = Reading Deficit; SD = Spelling Deficit; AD = Arithmetic Deficit; RSD/SRD = Reading and spelling Deficit; RAD/ARD = Reading and arithmetic Deficit; SAD/ASD = Spelling and Arithmetic Deficit; RSAD/SRAD/ARSD = Reading, spelling and arithmetic Deficit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "cognitive science", "Cognitive psychology", "Academic skills", "literacy", "numeracy", "psychology", "rates", "deficits", "arithmetic"], "article_id"=>1120815, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Kristina Moll", "Sarah Kunze", "Nina Neuhoff", "Jennifer Bruder", "Gerd Schulte-Körne"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103537.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_rates_N_8202_8202_1633_for_specific_learning_disorders_isolated_and_combined_deficits_in_reading_spelling_and_arithmetic_skills_/1120815", "title"=>"Prevalence rates (N = 1633) for specific learning disorders: isolated and combined deficits in reading, spelling, and arithmetic skills.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-29 02:50:34"}

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