Novel Insect Leaf-Mining after the End-Cretaceous Extinction and the Demise of Cretaceous Leaf Miners, Great Plains, USA
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{"title"=>"Novel insect leaf-mining after the end-cretaceous extinction and the demise of cretaceous leaf miners, great plains, USA", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael P.", "last_name"=>"Donovan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56292074100"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Wilf", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603804806"}, {"first_name"=>"Conrad C.", "last_name"=>"Labandeira", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701788435"}, {"first_name"=>"Kirk R.", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405970614"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel J.", "last_name"=>"Peppe", "scopus_author_id"=>"16314264500"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84904795088", "pmid"=>"25058404", "sgr"=>"84904795088", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0103542", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373618187"}, "id"=>"42a4df35-e52b-3b50-aefa-e226fbea31e2", "abstract"=>"Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/novel-insect-leafmining-after-endcretaceous-extinction-demise-cretaceous-leaf-miners-great-plains-us", "reader_count"=>15, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"China"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609143"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of leaf mine damage types from the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota; local early Paleocene localities in the Fort Union Formation, Powder River and Williston Basins, of North Dakota and Montana; and Mexican Hat, Powder River Basin, Montana.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "types", "cretaceous", "creek", "williston", "paleocene", "localities", "fort", "dakota", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117662, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_leaf_mine_damage_types_from_the_Cretaceous_Hell_Creek_Formation_Williston_Basin_North_Dakota_local_early_Paleocene_localities_in_the_Fort_Union_Formation_Powder_River_and_Williston_Basins_of_North_Dakota_and_Montana_and_Mexican_Hat_Powder_R/1117662", "title"=>"Comparison of leaf mine damage types from the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota; local early Paleocene localities in the Fort Union Formation, Powder River and Williston Basins, of North Dakota and Montana; and Mexican Hat, Powder River Basin, Montana.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609140"], "description"=>"<p>Angiosperm leaf species at Mexican Hat ranked by abundance in 2004 census <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542#pone.0103542-Wilf3\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "mexican", "ranked", "abundance", "2004", "census"], "article_id"=>1117659, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Angiosperm_leaf_species_at_Mexican_Hat_ranked_by_abundance_in_2004_census_19_/1117659", "title"=>"Angiosperm leaf species at Mexican Hat ranked by abundance in 2004 census [19].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609133"], "description"=>"<p>A: Circular (DT1, DT2), polylobate (DT3), and elongate slot-feeding (DT8) holes on <i>Browniea serrata</i>. Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of the slot-feeding hole (USNM 560169). B: Circular (DT1) and polylobate (DT3) holes on <i>Browniea serrata</i>. (USNM 560170). C: Circular galls on interveinal tissue (DT32) and secondary veins (DT34) on <i>Browniea serrata</i> (USNM 560171). D: Piercing and sucking marks with central depressions (DT46) on <i>Browniea serrata</i>. Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of a piercing and sucking mark (USNM 560172). E. Serpentine mine packed with spheroidal frass pellets (DT91; DMNH 35832) F: Blotch mine with internal frass trail (DT36) and polylobate holes (DT3) on “<i>Ficus</i>” <i>artocarpoides</i> (YPM 65820). G: Detail of frass trail in (F) showing spheroidal frass pellets. H: Polylobate hole (DT5) on “<i>Ficus</i>” <i>artocarpoides</i> (USNM 560173). I. cf. <i>Ternstroemites aureavallis</i> with a gall at the intersection of primary and secondary veins (DT33). Inset shows details of the gall, including a darkened outer rim and center (USNM 560174).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils"], "article_id"=>1117652, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Insect_damage_on_Browniea_serrata_A_E_Ficus_artocarpoides_F_H_and_cf_Ternstroemites_aureavallis_I_/1117652", "title"=>"Insect damage on <i>Browniea serrata</i> (A–E), “<i>Ficus</i>” <i>artocarpoides</i> (F–H), and cf. <i>Ternstroemites aureavallis</i> (I).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609136"], "description"=>"<p>A: Thin, serpentine mine, characterized by a gradual width increase and central frass trail (HC81; Somebody's Garden – DMNH loc. 9824; DMNH 19619). B: Frass-packed serpentine mine with minimal width increase and angular turns on “<i>Artocarpus</i>” <i>lessigiana</i> (Triceps – DMNH loc. 1855; DMNH 20005). C: Threadlike mine with looping path (HC34; Allison's Attachment – DMNH loc. 568; DMNH 20503). D: Leaf mine with tightly coiled, intestiniform path, packed with frass (Mud Butte, Dean Street – DMNH loc. 428; DMNH 7483). E: Serpentine leaf mine packed with frass (Unidentifiable; Triceps – DMNH loc. 1855; DMNH 7511). F: Partially preserved serpentine leaf mine with gradual width increase and dispersed, spheroidal frass pellets (arrow expands to G; Unidentifiable; Triceps – DMNH loc. 1855; DMNH 20000). G: Detail of frass trail in (F) showing dispersed, spheroidal frass pellets. H: Smooth-margined, linear mine with parallel sides on “<i>Dryophyllum</i>” <i>subfalcatum</i> (Dragonfly – DMNH loc. 565; DMNH 7908). I: Serpentine mine with thin, central frass trail starting near leaf apex (Skunk Hunt – DMNH loc. 4301; DMNH 35834). J: Aborted mine (HC199 (Laurales); Mud Butte, Dean Street – DMNH loc. 428; DMNH 7544).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "assigned", "dt41", "latest", "cretaceous", "dakota"], "article_id"=>1117655, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g017", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>19, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mines_assigned_to_DT41_from_the_latest_Cretaceous_of_North_Dakota_and_Montana_USA_/1117655", "title"=>"Mines assigned to DT41 from the latest Cretaceous of North Dakota and Montana, USA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608890"], "description"=>"<p>A: Dramatically expanding mine, following primary and secondary venation, with ragged margins on <i>Juglandiphyllites glabra</i> at Mexican Hat (USNM 560133). B: Short, probable mine, with initial linear phase and expanded terminal chamber on <i>Liriodendrites bradacii</i> (Battleship – DMNH loc. 900; DMNH 7317). C: Probable mine with gradual width increase and fairly smooth margins on HC32 (Terry's HCIIa Site – DMNH loc. 2097; DMNH 19984).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "42", "mines", "mexican", "latest", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>1117471, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Damage_type_42_mines_from_Mexican_Hat_and_the_latest_Cretaceous_of_North_Dakota_USA_/1117471", "title"=>"Damage type 42 mines from Mexican Hat and the latest Cretaceous of North Dakota, USA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609139"], "description"=>"<p>Collections and repository information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "repository"], "article_id"=>1117658, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Collections_and_repository_information_/1117658", "title"=>"Collections and repository information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608916"], "description"=>"<p>A: A nearly completely skeletonized leaf lacking reaction tissue (DT16; USNM 560134). B: Skeletonization crossing primary veins at the leaf base (DT56; USNM 560135). C: Polylobate hole (DT5) delimited by tertiary venation and exhibiting uneaten veinal stringers (USNM 560136). D: Surface feeding (DT29) delimited by tertiary veins (USNM 560137). E: Polylobate holes (DT3, DT5) and an elongate hole lacking parallel sides (DT7; arrow) near the base. Also, note the small margin feeding incision (DT15) on the left side (USNM 560138). F: Curvilinear swaths of piercing and sucking marks with central depressions (DT46). Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of the piercing and sucking marks (USNM 560139). G: Galls with thickened outer rims and possible exit holes at the centers (DT11; USNM 560140). H: Dark, circular galls on interveinal tissue (DT32), primary veins (DT33), and secondary veins (DT34) (USNM 560141).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117487, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_mining_insect_damage_on_Zizyphoides_flabella_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117487", "title"=>"Non-mining insect damage on <i>Zizyphoides flabella</i> at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609142"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of leaf mine damage types on Cercidiphyllaceae leaves from the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota; local early Paleocene localities from the Fort Union Formation, Powder River and Williston Basins, of North Dakota and Montana; and Mexican Hat, Powder River Basin, Montana.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "types", "cercidiphyllaceae", "leaves", "cretaceous", "creek", "williston", "paleocene", "localities", "fort", "dakota", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117661, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_leaf_mine_damage_types_on_Cercidiphyllaceae_leaves_from_the_Cretaceous_Hell_Creek_Formation_Williston_Basin_North_Dakota_local_early_Paleocene_localities_from_the_Fort_Union_Formation_Powder_River_and_Williston_Basins_of_North_Dakota_and_Mo/1117661", "title"=>"Comparison of leaf mine damage types on Cercidiphyllaceae leaves from the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota; local early Paleocene localities from the Fort Union Formation, Powder River and Williston Basins, of North Dakota and Montana; and Mexican Hat, Powder River Basin, Montana.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608747"], "description"=>"<p>A: Near-complete leaf mine between two secondary veins (arrow expands to B; USNM 560118). B: Detail of terminal frass trail in (A) showing ellipsoidal pellets. C: Detail of frass trail in (D) showing ellipsoidal pellets packed near the margin of the expanded terminal mine. D. Complete mine with initial, gradually widening trail and expanded terminal path (USNM 560119; arrow expands to C). E. Mine delimited by secondary and tertiary venation (USNM 560120; arrow expands to F). F. Detail of frass trail in (E), showing ellipsoidal frass pellets. G: Mine with tightly coiled path and blotch-like appearance with ellipsoidal frass adjoining the mine margins (USNM 560113). H. Partially-preserved mine showing gradual widening during the early phase (USNM 498156).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "lepidopteran", "miner", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_between_Platanus_raynoldsii_and_a_lepidopteran_leaf_miner_DT91_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117369", "title"=>"Association between <i>Platanus raynoldsii</i> and a lepidopteran leaf miner (DT91) at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608832"], "description"=>"<p>A: Shallow, semicircular margin feeding (DT12; arrow; USNM 560123). B: Oval hole (DT4) delimited by secondary and tertiary veins (USNM 560124). C: Polylobate hole (DT5) bounded by primary, secondary, and tertiary veins (USNM 560125). D: Parallel-sided, elongate slot feeding, influenced by major veins (DT8), or possibly an abiotic tear (DMNH 35833). E: Patches of skeletonized tissue lacking reaction rim (DT16; USNM 560126). F: Rectangular skeletonized area (DT19; USNM 560127). G: Piercing and sucking marks with central depressions (DT46). Detail of marks in inset (USNM 560128). H: Gall with thickened outer rim and possible exit hole at the center (DT11) (USNM 560129). I. Gall on interveinal tissue (DT32) characterized by a darker outer rim and center (USNM 560130). J: Serpentine mine lacking frass, with a gradual width increase and strong association with major veins (DT105). Arrow marks the oviposition site (USNM 498159). K: Probable mine with parallel frass trails (DT282; YPM 65939).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117418, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Insect_feeding_damage_on_Juglandiphyllites_glabra_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117418", "title"=>"Insect-feeding damage on <i>Juglandiphyllites glabra</i> at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609135"], "description"=>"<p>A: Oviposition scars on unidentifiable leaf fragment. Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of oviposition scars (USNM 560184). B: Oviposition scars on unidentifiable leaf fragment. Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of oviposition scar (USNM 560185). C. <i>Paleonelumbo macroloba</i> leaf, without insect damage (rotated to fit layout; USNM 560175). D: <i>Polyptera manningii</i> fruit, which is correlated with <i>Juglandiphyllites glabra</i>, without insect damage (USNM 560176). E: <i>Paranymphaea crassifolia</i> without insect damage (USNM 560177).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "angiosperm", "leaves", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117654, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g016", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oviposition_A_8211_B_rare_angiosperm_leaves_C_E_and_one_fruit_D_from_Mexican_Hat_/1117654", "title"=>"Oviposition (A–B), rare angiosperm leaves (C, E), and one fruit (D) from Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609145", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609146", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609147", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609148"], "description"=>"<div><p>Plant and associated insect-damage diversity in the western U.S.A. decreased significantly at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and remained low until the late Paleocene. However, the Mexican Hat locality (ca. 65 Ma) in southeastern Montana, with a typical, low-diversity flora, uniquely exhibits high damage diversity on nearly all its host plants, when compared to all known local and regional early Paleocene sites. The same plant species show minimal damage elsewhere during the early Paleocene. We asked whether the high insect damage diversity at Mexican Hat was more likely related to the survival of Cretaceous insects from refugia or to an influx of novel Paleocene taxa. We compared damage on 1073 leaf fossils from Mexican Hat to over 9000 terminal Cretaceous leaf fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of nearby southwestern North Dakota and to over 9000 Paleocene leaf fossils from the Fort Union Formation in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. We described the entire insect-feeding ichnofauna at Mexican Hat and focused our analysis on leaf mines because they are typically host-specialized and preserve a number of diagnostic morphological characters. Nine mine damage types attributable to three of the four orders of leaf-mining insects are found at Mexican Hat, six of them so far unique to the site. We found no evidence linking any of the diverse Hell Creek mines with those found at Mexican Hat, nor for the survival of any Cretaceous leaf miners over the K-Pg boundary regionally, even on well-sampled, surviving plant families. Overall, our results strongly relate the high damage diversity on the depauperate Mexican Hat flora to an influx of novel insect herbivores during the early Paleocene, possibly caused by a transient warming event and range expansion, and indicate drastic extinction rather than survivorship of Cretaceous insect taxa from refugia.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "leaf-mining", "end-cretaceous", "extinction", "demise", "cretaceous"], "article_id"=>1117664, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Novel_Insect_Leaf_Mining_after_the_End_Cretaceous_Extinction_and_the_Demise_of_Cretaceous_Leaf_Miners_Great_Plains_USA_/1117664", "title"=>"Novel Insect Leaf-Mining after the End-Cretaceous Extinction and the Demise of Cretaceous Leaf Miners, Great Plains, USA", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609125"], "description"=>"<p>A: Skeletonized tissue with reaction rim (DT17) bounded by primary veins and possible piercing and sucking marks (DT46). Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of the piercing and sucking marks (USNM 560165). B: Circular holes (DT1) through interveinal tissue and oval holes at the intersection of primary and secondary veins (DT57; USNM 560166). C: Ovoidal hole at the intersection of primary and secondary veins with well-developed reaction rim (DT57; USNM 560167). D: Gall with thickened outer rim and unthickened inner area (DT11) on interveinal tissue (USNM 560167). E. Circular gall positioned on a secondary vein (DT34) with darkened outer rim (USNM 560168). F: Linear mine following the primary vein to a secondary vein, characterized by a gradual width increase and frass-packed trail with spheroidal pellets (DT91). Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of the initial frass trail (USNM 498158). G: Detail of linear path in (F). Closeup of the frass trail and spheroidal pellets in inset. Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils"], "article_id"=>1117644, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Insect_damage_on_Populus_nebrascensis_/1117644", "title"=>"Insect damage on “<i>Populus</i>” <i>nebrascensis</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609141"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of mine damage types on Platanaceae leaves from the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota; local early Paleocene localities from the Fort Union Formation, Powder River and Williston Basins, of North Dakota and Montana; and Mexican Hat, Powder River Basin, Montana.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "types", "platanaceae", "leaves", "cretaceous", "creek", "williston", "paleocene", "localities", "fort", "dakota", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117660, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_mine_damage_types_on_Platanaceae_leaves_from_the_Cretaceous_Hell_Creek_Formation_Williston_Basin_North_Dakota_local_early_Paleocene_localities_from_the_Fort_Union_Formation_Powder_River_and_Williston_Basins_of_North_Dakota_and_Montana_and_M/1117660", "title"=>"Comparison of mine damage types on Platanaceae leaves from the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota; local early Paleocene localities from the Fort Union Formation, Powder River and Williston Basins, of North Dakota and Montana; and Mexican Hat, Powder River Basin, Montana.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609138"], "description"=>"<p>Mine damage types by host plant at Mexican Hat.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "types", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117657, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mine_damage_types_by_host_plant_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117657", "title"=>"Mine damage types by host plant at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609144"], "description"=>"<p>Frass trail percentage range from earliest trail to latest trail.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "dt91", "morphology", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117663, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_DT91_leaf_mine_morphology_by_host_plant_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117663", "title"=>"Comparison of DT91 leaf mine morphology by host plant at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608981"], "description"=>"<p>A: Circular (DT2) and polylobate holes (DT3) with thin reaction rims (USNM 560144). B: Semicircular margin feeding near leaf apex (DT12; USNM 560145). C: Deeply trenched margin feeding towards the midvein (DT15; possibly an abiotic tear) and dark, circular galls on interveinal tissue (DT32), primary veins (DT33), and secondary veins (DT34; USNM 560146). D: Skeletonized area at the leaf base (DT56) and circular piercing and sucking marks with central depressions spread throughout the leaf (DT46). Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of the piercing and sucking marks (USNM 560147). E: Surface feeding delimited by two secondary veins and crossing the midvein. Surface feeding crossing the midvein has polylobate reaction rim (DT30; USNM 560148). F: Alternating light and dark lines of unknown origin; possibly viral damage, parallel lines of surface feeding, or fungal damage (DT23; USNM 560149). G: Galls with thickened outer rims surrounding unthickened inner tissue (DT11; USNM 498161).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "foliage", "feeding", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117545, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_External_foliage_feeding_on_Cercidiphyllum_genetrix_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117545", "title"=>"External foliage feeding on <i>Cercidiphyllum genetrix</i> at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608943"], "description"=>"<p>A: Serpentine mine delimited by primary veins, with gradual width expansion and centered frass trail packed with ellipsoidal pellets (DT91; arrow expanded in B; USNM 560142). B: Detail of later frass trail in (A), showing increase in frass size possibly associated with instar growth. C: Detail of frass trail in (D), showing tightly-packed, ellipsoidal frass pellets. D: Leaf mine with a central frass trail composed of ellipsoidal pellets (DT91; arrow expanded in C; USNM 560136). E: Leaf mine looping between primary veins, with central frass trail (DT91; USNM 560143). F: Threadlike mine (DT41), with gradually expanding width. Frass is initially densely packed and lacks individual pellets (lower arrow, expanded in H), but subsequently loosens into a wider trail (upper arrow, expanded in G) (USNM 498160). G: Detail of loosened frass trail in (F). H: Detail of early, threadlike path, with densely packed frass trail in (F).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "mines", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117512, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Leaf_mines_on_Zizyphoides_flabella_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117512", "title"=>"Leaf mines on <i>Zizyphoides flabella</i> at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609134"], "description"=>"<p>A: Blotch mine delimited by secondary veins with central frass pellets (DT36, arrow), and circular and oval holes (DT2, DT4) on Dicot leaf morphotype 1 (USNM 560178). B: Poorly-preserved serpentine mine on Dicot leaf morphotype 1. Arrow indicates circular oviposition damage (DT91; arrow expanded in C; USNM 560179). C. Detail of (B) showing circular oviposition damage. D: Smooth, semicircular margin feeding (DT12), and probable secondary feeding incision towards the midvein (DT15) on Dicot leaf morphotype 1 (USNM 560180). E: Oval hole feeding (DT2; indicated by lower arrow) and semicircular margin feeding (DT12; indicated by upper arrow) on Dicot leaf morphotype 2 (USNM 560181). F: Oval hole feeding (DT2, arrow) on Dicot leaf morphotype 3 (USNM 560182). G: Deep margin feeding incision reaching the midvein (DT14, arrow) on Dicot leaf morphotype 4 (USNM 560183).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "dicot", "morphotypes"], "article_id"=>1117653, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Unknown_dicot_leaf_morphotypes_with_insect_damage_/1117653", "title"=>"Unknown dicot leaf morphotypes with insect damage.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609031"], "description"=>"<p>Mines on E–K (DT41) are interpreted as belonging to the same species of lepidopteran leaf miner, representing at least a 6 million year association between the host and miner. A: Mine characterized by overlapping trail, gradual width increase, spheroidal pellets in a frass matrix, and lack of frass in terminal portion (DT91; USNM 498161). B: Closeup of mine in (A). C: Closeup of frass trail in (A) and (B), showing spheroidal frass pellets in a darkened matrix. D: Detail of initial frass trail in (A) and (B). E: Serpentine mine characterized by initial threadlike phase arising from the base of a multi-veined leaf, widening path, smooth margins, and packed frass (DT41; arrow expanded in F; USNM 560150). F: Detail of frass trail in (E), showing tightly packed frass. G: Detail of counterpart of (E), showing packed frass in early portion of the mine. H: Threadlike mine with increasing width positioned at the base of the leaf (DT41) (Haz-Mat; USNM 560151). I: Threadlike mine with increasing width positioned at the base of the leaf between two primary veins (DT41) (Haz-Mat; USNM 560152). J: Tightly coiled mine with packed frass (DT41) (Skeleton Coast; USNM 560153). K: Poorly preserved mine positioned at the base of the leaf between two primary veins interpreted as DT41 (Skeleton Coast; USNM 560154).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "mines", "mexican", "paleocene", "wyoming", "localities"], "article_id"=>1117584, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Leaf_mines_on_Cercidiphyllum_genetrix_at_Mexican_Hat_A_G_and_late_Paleocene_Wyoming_localities_H_K_/1117584", "title"=>"Leaf mines on <i>Cercidiphyllum genetrix</i> at Mexican Hat (A–G) and late Paleocene Wyoming localities (H–K).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609052"], "description"=>"<p>A: Piercing and sucking marks with central depression (DT46; arrow expanded in B; USNM 560155). B: Closeup of cluster of piercing and sucking marks (DT46) on (A). Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of piercing and sucking marks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "lauraceae", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117597, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Insect_damage_on_Lauraceae_sp_1_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117597", "title"=>"Insect damage on Lauraceae sp. 1 at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608785"], "description"=>"<p>A: Two blotch mines near the leaf base (USNM 498155). B: Closeup of blotch mine showing dispersed frass pellets (USNM 560121). C: Closeup of blotch mine on probable young leaf, showing increase in frass size from right to left (USNM 560122). D. Detail of frass pellets from the left blotch mine in (A). Each box depicts a different frass size, starting from the smallest (1<sup>st</sup> instar; upper left box) to largest (4<sup>th</sup> instar; lower right box) (USNM 498155). All four pictures are at the same scale for size comparison. E: Probable serpentine mine with parallel-sided frass trails (DT282; YPM 65939A).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "blotch-mines", "probable", "lepidopteran"], "article_id"=>1117390, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sawfly_Tenthredinidae_blotch_mines_A_D_DT36_and_a_probable_lepidopteran_mine_E_on_Platanus_raynoldsii_/1117390", "title"=>"Sawfly (Tenthredinidae) blotch-mines (A–D; DT36) and a probable lepidopteran mine (E) on <i>Platanus raynoldsii</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608730"], "description"=>"<p>A: Margin feeding at leaf apex to midvein (DT15) and dark, circular galls on interveinal tissue (DT32; arrow expands to M) and adjacent to secondary veins (DT33; USNM 560105). B: Circular holes (DT2) and skeletonized areas (DT16) with well-developed reaction rims and minimal tertiary venation preserved (USNM 560106). C: Oval (DT4) and polylobate (DT3) holes bounded by tertiary veins (USNM 560107). D: Parallel-sided slots (DT8), which thin to a point (USNM 560108). E: Multiple margin feeding events characterized by shallow, semicircular incisions (DT12) and a large polylobate hole with possible secondary feeding event (arrow) on upper right side of the hole (DT5; USNM 560109). F: Skeletonized areas lacking reaction tissue (DT16) and crossing primary veins at the leaf base (DT56; USNM 560110). G: Skeletonized tissue with reaction rim adjacent to secondary veins and preserving fifth order venation (DT17; USNM 560111). H: Rectangular skeletonized area (DT19) bounded by primary and secondary veins (USNM 560112). I: Circular surface-feeding areas (DT29) with darkened reaction rims (USNM 560113). J: Parallel-sided, alternating light and dark lines of unknown origin; possibly viral damage, parallel lines of surface feeding, or fungal damage (DT23; USNM 560115). K: Curvilinear rows of dark, circular piercing and sucking marks with central depressions (DT46). Detail of piercing and sucking marks provided in inset (USNM 560114). L: Galls with thickened outer rims surrounding unthickened tissue (DT11) positioned on intercostal tissue and adjacent to secondary veins (USNM 560116). M: Detail of galls in (A) (DT32; USNM 560105). N: Three-dimensionally preserved gall near intersection of primary and secondary veins (DT32; USNM 560117).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117354, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Non_mining_insect_damage_on_Platanus_raynoldsii_at_Mexican_Hat_early_Paleocene_Montana_/1117354", "title"=>"Non-mining insect damage on <i>Platanus raynoldsii</i> at Mexican Hat, early Paleocene, Montana.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609137"], "description"=>"<p>A: Two linear leaf mines with widened terminal chambers along the midvein of <i>Paranymphaea crassifolia</i> (DT59; Paleocene; Paleocene Leaf –DMNH loc. 563; DMNH 20055). B: Leaf mine with widened terminal chamber along secondary vein on leaf morphotype HC265 (DT59; Cretaceous; Battleship – DMNH loc. 900; DMNH 7286). C, D: Probable mines on “<i>P.</i>” <i>nebrascensis</i> from Pyramid Butte, ND (DT282; YPM locality 86107; YPM 9796, YPM 9762). E. Initially serpentine mine with blotch-like terminal chamber on “<i>P.</i>” <i>nebrascensis</i> (DT91; YPM loc. 87150; YPM 9636) F. Serpentine mine with loosely packed frass trail on an unidentifiable leaf fragment (DT91; arrow expanded in G; Pyramid Butte - YPM loc. 86107; YPM 168194) G. Detail of frass trail in (F) showing meniscate pattern. H. Serpentine mine with medial frass trail composed of spheroidal-ellipsoidal pellets on <i>Z</i>. <i>flabella</i> (DT91). Arrow indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of the frass trail (YPM loc. 8403; YPM 9526).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "mines", "assigned", "dt59", "dt282", "dt91"], "article_id"=>1117656, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g018", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Leaf_mines_assigned_to_DT59_A_8211_B_DT282_C_8211_D_and_DT91_E_8211_H_/1117656", "title"=>"Leaf mines assigned to DT59 (A–B), DT282 (C–D), and DT91 (E–H).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1608881"], "description"=>"<p>A: Intestiniform mine with initially tightly packed frass trail and subsequent looser deposition of spheroidal frass pellets (DT91). Box indicates area expanded in the inset, showing detail of the frass trail (USNM 560131). B: Sinusoidal mine with loosely packed frass trail (DT91; USNM 560132). C: Linear mine with loosely packed frass trail (YPM 65888). D: Serpentine mine with sparse, spheroidal frass pellets and gradual width increase (YPM 65848). Detail of frass trail from counterpart in inset E: Sinusoidal mine packed with spheroidal frass pellets (DT92; arrow expands to F; USNM 498157). F: Detail of frass trail in (E), showing densely packed frass along the margins, and slightly looser frass in the center of the mine. G: Mine following secondary venation, with small, spheroidal frass pellets packed along mine margins (DT92; USNM 560124).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "mines", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117462, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Additional_mines_on_Juglandiphyllites_glabra_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117462", "title"=>"Additional mines on <i>Juglandiphyllites glabra</i> at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1609103"], "description"=>"<p>A: Shallow, semicircular margin feeding along the sides of the leaf (DT12) and at the apex through the midvein (DT13) (USNM 560156). B: Circular hole (DT2) near secondary vein (USNM 560157). C: Elongate, parallel-sided hole (DT8) positioned at the intersection between the primary and secondary veins (USNM 560158). D: Elongate and tapering hole (DT7), with well-developed reaction tissue (USNM 560159). E: Margin feeding incision along a secondary vein towards the midvein (DT15; USNM 560160). F: Surface feeding areas (DT29) with well-developed reaction rims (USNM 560161). G: Elliptical and ovoidal piercing and sucking marks (DT48) associated with major veins and leaf margins (box expanded in H; USNM 560162). H: Detail of piercing and sucking marks in (G), showing linear association with secondary veins. I: Elliptical groupings of piercing and sucking marks (DT281) associated with secondary veins (arrow expanded in J; USNM 560163). J: Closeup of a piercing and sucking cluster in (I), showing an increase in the size of individual marks towards the vein (arrow expanded in K). K: Detail of piercing and sucking marks in (I) and (J). L: Galls with thickened outer rims surrounding unthickened tissue (DT11; USNM 560164) M: Circular galls clustered in groups of four and dispersed randomly on interveinal tissue (DT32) and adjacent to secondary veins (DT34; USNM 560157).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "paleoecology", "Plant ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "Species extinction", "Paleontology", "paleobiology", "Paleobotany", "Plant science", "Zoology", "Entomology", "fossils", "lauraceae", "mexican"], "article_id"=>1117633, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Michael P. Donovan", "Peter Wilf", "Conrad C. Labandeira", "Kirk R. Johnson", "Daniel J. Peppe"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103542.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Insect_damage_on_Lauraceae_sp_2_at_Mexican_Hat_/1117633", "title"=>"Insect damage on Lauraceae sp. 2 at Mexican Hat.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-24 04:01:02"}

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