Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation
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{"title"=>"Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for time-lapse microscopy applications and cell visualisation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Adam E.", "last_name"=>"Lynch", "scopus_author_id"=>"55776209000"}, {"first_name"=>"Junian", "last_name"=>"Triajianto", "scopus_author_id"=>"56323683400"}, {"first_name"=>"Edwin", "last_name"=>"Routledge", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003385924"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905962887", "pmid"=>"25121722", "sgr"=>"84905962887", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0103547", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373759564"}, "id"=>"4dd9390f-205a-3b18-beb1-b2520ce0d3c4", "abstract"=>"<p>Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (<italic>Biomphalaria glabrata</italic> hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (<italic>B. glabrata</italic> hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lowcost-motility-tracking-system-locomotis-timelapse-microscopy-applications-cell-visualisation", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636909"], "description"=>"<p>(a) 310× image taken at 640×480 with a conventional inverted microscope; (b) 206.8× image taken at 640×480 with our system and enlarged post acquisition by 149% to match the size; (c) 620× image taken at 1280×960 with a conventional inverted microscope, arrows show intra-cellular detail; (d) 1280×960 image taken with our system at full magnification (413.6×) and enlarged post-aquisition by 149% to match the size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["LOCOMOTIS", "Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes", "Cell Visualisation", "image cells", "cell culture experiments", "microscopy equipment", "USB microscopes", "se", "cell types", "SC 5 mouse Sertoli cells", "glabrata hemocytes", "cell motility system"], "article_id"=>1140007, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Adam E. Lynch", "Junian Triajianto", "Edwin Routledge"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_MDA_MB_231_cell_images_between_our_system_and_a_conventional_optical_microscope_/1140007", "title"=>"Comparison of MDA-MB-231 cell images between our system and a conventional optical microscope.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 11:26:18"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636930"], "description"=>"<p>(a) 640×480 image at full magnification; (b) 640×480 image enlarged post-acquisition to 800%; (c) 1280×960 image at full magnification reduced in size by 50%; (d)1280×960 image enlarged post-acquisition to 400%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["LOCOMOTIS", "Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes", "Cell Visualisation", "image cells", "cell culture experiments", "microscopy equipment", "USB microscopes", "se", "cell types", "SC 5 mouse Sertoli cells", "glabrata hemocytes", "cell motility system"], "article_id"=>1140011, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Adam E. Lynch", "Junian Triajianto", "Edwin Routledge"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_digital_microscope_pixel_resolutions_between_640_215_480_and_1280_215_960_/1140011", "title"=>"Comparison of digital microscope pixel resolutions between 640×480 and 1280×960.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 11:26:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636965"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Cyst, nauplii and adult <i>Artemia</i> at 15.7× magnification; (b) Cyst and nauplii at 206.8×, adult at 15.7×; (c) All three stages at 206.8× magnification.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["LOCOMOTIS", "Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes", "Cell Visualisation", "image cells", "cell culture experiments", "microscopy equipment", "USB microscopes", "se", "cell types", "SC 5 mouse Sertoli cells", "glabrata hemocytes", "cell motility system"], "article_id"=>1140025, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Adam E. Lynch", "Junian Triajianto", "Edwin Routledge"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ability_of_the_microscope_system_to_image_distinct_samples_in_different_manners_simultaneously_/1140025", "title"=>"Ability of the microscope system to image distinct samples in different manners simultaneously.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 11:26:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637034", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637035", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637036", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637038", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637040", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637041", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637042", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637043", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637044", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637045", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637046", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637047", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637048", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1637049"], "description"=>"<div><p>Direct visualisation of cells for the purpose of studying their motility has typically required expensive microscopy equipment. However, recent advances in digital sensors mean that it is now possible to image cells for a fraction of the price of a standard microscope. Along with low-cost imaging there has also been a large increase in the availability of high quality, open-source analysis programs. In this study we describe the development and performance of an expandable cell motility system employing inexpensive, commercially available digital USB microscopes to image various cell types using time-lapse and perform tracking assays in proof-of-concept experiments. With this system we were able to measure and record three separate assays simultaneously on one personal computer using identical microscopes, and obtained tracking results comparable in quality to those from other studies that used standard, more expensive, equipment. The microscopes used in our system were capable of a maximum magnification of 413.6×. Although resolution was lower than that of a standard inverted microscope we found this difference to be indistinguishable at the magnification chosen for cell tracking experiments (206.8×). In preliminary cell culture experiments using our system, velocities (mean µm/min ± SE) of 0.81±0.01 (<i>Biomphalaria glabrata</i> hemocytes on uncoated plates), 1.17±0.004 (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells), 1.24±0.006 (SC5 mouse Sertoli cells) and 2.21±0.01 (<i>B. glabrata</i> hemocytes on Poly-L-Lysine coated plates), were measured and are consistent with previous reports. We believe that this system, coupled with open-source analysis software, demonstrates that higher throughput time-lapse imaging of cells for the purpose of studying motility can be an affordable option for all researchers.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["LOCOMOTIS", "Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes", "Cell Visualisation", "image cells", "cell culture experiments", "microscopy equipment", "USB microscopes", "se", "cell types", "SC 5 mouse Sertoli cells", "glabrata hemocytes", "cell motility system"], "article_id"=>1140087, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Adam E. Lynch", "Junian Triajianto", "Edwin Routledge"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.s014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Low_Cost_Motility_Tracking_System_LOCOMOTIS_for_Time_Lapse_Microscopy_Applications_and_Cell_Visualisation_/1140087", "title"=>"Low-Cost Motility Tracking System (LOCOMOTIS) for Time-Lapse Microscopy Applications and Cell Visualisation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 11:26:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636880"], "description"=>"<p>Incubator temperature readings (°C) taken every minute for 20 hours.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["LOCOMOTIS", "Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes", "Cell Visualisation", "image cells", "cell culture experiments", "microscopy equipment", "USB microscopes", "se", "cell types", "SC 5 mouse Sertoli cells", "glabrata hemocytes", "cell motility system"], "article_id"=>1139992, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Adam E. Lynch", "Junian Triajianto", "Edwin Routledge"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Incubator_temperature_stability_over_time_/1139992", "title"=>"Incubator temperature stability over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 11:26:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636875"], "description"=>"<p>Three separate scratch assays of MDA-MB-231 cells displayed simultaneously on Autokams.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["LOCOMOTIS", "Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes", "Cell Visualisation", "image cells", "cell culture experiments", "microscopy equipment", "USB microscopes", "se", "cell types", "SC 5 mouse Sertoli cells", "glabrata hemocytes", "cell motility system"], "article_id"=>1139987, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Adam E. Lynch", "Junian Triajianto", "Edwin Routledge"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Autokams_software_interface_/1139987", "title"=>"Autokams software interface.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 11:26:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1636874"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Schematic diagram of microscope system; (b) CAD model; (c) Photograph of finished system.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["LOCOMOTIS", "Biomphalaria glabrata hemocytes", "Cell Visualisation", "image cells", "cell culture experiments", "microscopy equipment", "USB microscopes", "se", "cell types", "SC 5 mouse Sertoli cells", "glabrata hemocytes", "cell motility system"], "article_id"=>1139986, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Adam E. Lynch", "Junian Triajianto", "Edwin Routledge"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103547.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Images_of_the_microscope_system_/1139986", "title"=>"Images of the microscope system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-14 11:26:18"}

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Relative Metric

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