Inhibition of DNA Methylation Alters Chromatin Organization, Nuclear Positioning and Activity of 45S rDNA Loci in Cycling Cells of Q. robur
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{"title"=>"Inhibition of DNA methylation alters chromatin organization, nuclear positioning and activity of 45S rDNA loci in cycling cells of Q. robur", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vedrana Vičić", "last_name"=>"Bočkor", "scopus_author_id"=>"56311292900"}, {"first_name"=>"Darko", "last_name"=>"Barišić", "scopus_author_id"=>"54880020700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tomislav", "last_name"=>"Horvat", "scopus_author_id"=>"36908645800"}, {"first_name"=>"Željka", "last_name"=>"Maglica", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507084580"}, {"first_name"=>"Aleksandar", "last_name"=>"Vojta", "scopus_author_id"=>"36887637600"}, {"first_name"=>"Vlatka", "last_name"=>"Zoldoš", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602763656"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905493172", "sgr"=>"84905493172", "pui"=>"373700769", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0103954", "pmid"=>"25093501", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"572611cd-51dd-30bf-96df-c07b0f660cd4", "abstract"=>"Around 2200 copies of genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, are organized into two rDNA loci, the major (NOR-1) and the minor (NOR-2) locus. We present the first cytogenetic evidence indicating that the NOR-1 represents the active nucleolar organizer responsible for rRNA synthesis, while the NOR-2 probably stays transcriptionally silent and does not participate in the formation of the nucleolus in Q. robur, which is a situation resembling the well-known phenomenon of nucleolar dominance. rDNA chromatin topology analyses in cycling root tip cells by light and electron microscopy revealed the minor locus to be highly condensed and located away from the nucleolus, while the major locus was consistently associated with the nucleolus and often exhibited different levels of condensation. In addition, silver precipitation was confined exclusively to the NOR-1 locus. Also, NOR-2 was highly methylated at cytosines and rDNA chromatin was marked with histone modifications characteristic for repressive state. After treatment of the root cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, we observed an increase in the total level of rRNA transcripts and a decrease in DNA methylation level at the NOR-2 locus. Also, NOR-2 sites relocalized with respect to the nuclear periphery/nucleolus, however, the relocation did not affect the contribution of this locus to nucleolar formation, nor did it affect rDNA chromatin decondensation, strongly suggesting that NOR-2 has lost the function of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar organization.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/inhibition-dna-methylation-alters-chromatin-organization-nuclear-positioning-activity-45s-rdna-loci", "reader_count"=>6, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624234"], "description"=>"<p>IFF detection of H3K9ac (A), H3K4me3 (B), H3K9me1 (C) and H3K27me2 (D) and graphs showing Pearson’s coefficient of co-localization of respective histone marks with the NOR loci. Green signals correspond to immunofluorescence of histone antibodies and red signals represent 18S rDNA FISH signals. Number of asterisks indicates p<0.01; error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Letter “n” marks the nucleoli. Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "modifications", "nor-1", "nor-2", "loci", "cycling", "cells"], "article_id"=>1129886, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histone_modifications_associated_with_NOR_1_and_NOR_2_loci_in_root_tip_cycling_cells_of_Q_robur_after_treatment_5_aza_2_dC_/1129886", "title"=>"Histone modifications associated with NOR-1 and NOR-2 loci in root tip cycling cells of <i>Q. robur</i> after treatment 5-aza-2′-dC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624231"], "description"=>"<p>IFF detection of H3K9ac (A), H3K4me3 (B), H3K9me1 (C) and H3K27me2 (D) and graphs showing Pearson’s coefficient of co-localization of respective histone marks with NOR loci. Green signals correspond to immunofluorescence of histone antibodies and red signals represent 18S rDNA FISH signals. Number of asterisks indicates p<0.05; error bars represent the standard the error of the mean. Letter “n” marks the nucleoli. Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "modifications", "nor-1", "nor-2", "loci", "cycling", "cells"], "article_id"=>1129883, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Histone_modifications_associated_with_NOR_1_and_NOR_2_loci_in_root_tip_cycling_cells_of_Q_robur_/1129883", "title"=>"Histone modifications associated with NOR-1 and NOR-2 loci in root tip cycling cells of <i>Q.robur</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624225"], "description"=>"<p>A. Locations of wheat (yellow-green) and rye (red) NOR loci in nuclei of triticale revealed by FISH. Statistical analysis of measured distances from the nucleolus (B, N = 42) or the nuclear periphery (C, N = 42) revealed significant differences between wheat and rye rDNA loci, concordant with the established transcriptional activity of the wheat loci and silencing of the rye locus due to nucleolar dominance. Number of asterisks indicates p<0.01 (**) and p<0.0001 (***); error bars represent the standard error of the mean. D. The graphical illustration of the correlation between the position of a NOR locus in relation to the nucleolus and its transcriptional activity in triticale and the common oak. Letter “n” marks the nucleoli. Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "locus", "nucleolus", "transcriptional"], "article_id"=>1129877, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_between_the_position_of_a_NOR_locus_relative_to_the_nucleolus_and_its_transcriptional_activity_/1129877", "title"=>"Correlation between the position of a NOR locus relative to the nucleolus and its transcriptional activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624207"], "description"=>"<p>FITC green signals represent the 18S rDNA probe, and Fluoro-Red signals correspond to the 5S rDNA probe (not relevant in this study). A. NOR-1 locus (arrows) is located terminally on a submetacentric chromosome pair. NOR-2 (arrowheads) resides near centromere of a small metacentric chromosome. Observe the signal size and strength dimorphism of NOR-2 sites. The rDNA knob (localized FISH signal) is situated proximally on one site (A and D, yellow arrow), and the rest of rDNA chromatin is decondensed (punctuate FISH signal). On another site, rDNA knob is present both at the proximal and the terminal (satellite) part of the site (white arrows, A and D) and the dispersed rDNA fraction resides between the two (visible as a punctuate FISH signal corresponding to SC). B and E. Satellites (distal part of the NOR-1 site) are indicated with arrows in DAPI stained metaphases. C and F. Schematic representations of chromatin topology at the major rDNA locus corresponding to figures A and D. G. and H. Graphical representations of measured NOR-1 and NOR-2 sizes (G, arbitrary OD units normalized to pixel area) and volume (H, arbitrary OD units normalized to voxel volume) demonstrate that the two loci can be unambiguously identified. Number of asterisks indicates p<0.0001; error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "hybridization", "metaphase", "18s", "5s", "rdna"], "article_id"=>1129872, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fluorescence_in_situ_hybridization_FISH_on_metaphase_chromosomes_of_Q_robur_using_18S_and_5S_rDNA_probes_/1129872", "title"=>"Fluorescence <i>in situ</i> hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes of <i>Q. robur</i> using 18S and 5S rDNA probes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624229"], "description"=>"<p>A. Immunofluorescent detection of 5-mC coupled with FISH using 18S rDNA probe revealed the reduction of 5-mC levels in NOR-2 sites. B. Similar levels of 5-mC in both NOR loci were confirmed by co-localization analysis. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Letter “n” marks the nucleoli. Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "dna", "methylation", "nor-1", "nor-2"], "article_id"=>1129881, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decrease_in_DNA_methylation_level_in_NOR_1_and_NOR_2_of_Q_robur_following_treatment_with_5_aza_2_dC_/1129881", "title"=>"Decrease in DNA methylation level in NOR-1 and NOR-2 of <i>Q.robur</i> following treatment with 5-aza-2′-dC.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624246", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624247", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624248", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624250"], "description"=>"<div><p>Around 2200 copies of genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in pedunculate oak, <i>Quercus robur</i>, are organized into two rDNA loci, the major (NOR-1) and the minor (NOR-2) locus. We present the first cytogenetic evidence indicating that the NOR-1 represents the active nucleolar organizer responsible for rRNA synthesis, while the NOR-2 probably stays transcriptionally silent and does not participate in the formation of the nucleolus in <i>Q. robur</i>, which is a situation resembling the well-known phenomenon of nucleolar dominance. rDNA chromatin topology analyses in cycling root tip cells by light and electron microscopy revealed the minor locus to be highly condensed and located away from the nucleolus, while the major locus was consistently associated with the nucleolus and often exhibited different levels of condensation. In addition, silver precipitation was confined exclusively to the NOR-1 locus. Also, NOR-2 was highly methylated at cytosines and rDNA chromatin was marked with histone modifications characteristic for repressive state. After treatment of the root cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, we observed an increase in the total level of rRNA transcripts and a decrease in DNA methylation level at the NOR-2 locus. Also, NOR-2 sites relocalized with respect to the nuclear periphery/nucleolus, however, the relocation did not affect the contribution of this locus to nucleolar formation, nor did it affect rDNA chromatin decondensation, strongly suggesting that NOR-2 has lost the function of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar organization.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "inhibition", "dna", "methylation", "alters", "positioning", "45s", "rdna", "loci", "cycling", "cells"], "article_id"=>1129898, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Inhibition_of_DNA_Methylation_Alters_Chromatin_Organization_Nuclear_Positioning_and_Activity_of_45S_rDNA_Loci_in_Cycling_Cells_of_Q_robur_/1129898", "title"=>"Inhibition of DNA Methylation Alters Chromatin Organization, Nuclear Positioning and Activity of 45S rDNA Loci in Cycling Cells of <i>Q. robur</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624228"], "description"=>"<p>A. After the treatment with 5-aza-2′-dC, NOR-2 sites (arrowheads) repositioned much closer to nucleoli, as confirmed by statistical analysis (B). Statistical analysis shows equal distance of the both NOR loci from the nuclear periphery (C). Number of asterisks indicates p<0.0001; error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Letter “n” marks the nucleoli. Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "repositioning", "nor-2", "inhibition", "dna"], "article_id"=>1129880, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nuclear_repositioning_of_NOR_2_of_Q_robur_following_inhibition_of_DNA_methylation_/1129880", "title"=>"Nuclear repositioning of NOR-2 of <i>Q.robur</i> following inhibition of DNA methylation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624241"], "description"=>"<p>A number of cells with a particular rDNA chromatin topology at the NOR-1 sites was observed. A - one NOR-1 site shows a terminal rDNA knob and a proximal dispersed rDNA fraction, corresponding to decondensed rDNA chromatin, while another NOR-1 site contains a rDNA knob at the proximal and the distal (satellite) end with dispersed rDNA chromatin spreading between the two; B - one NOR-1 site shows proximal rDNA knob and a terminal dispersed rDNA fraction, the other site shows only condensed rDNA chromatin at the satellite, while rDNA chromatin from the proximal part of the site is dispersed; F - fusion of the sites, i.e. very close positioning of proximal rDNA knobs in relation of each other, T - total number of analyzed cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "patterns", "rdna", "nor-1"], "article_id"=>1129893, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_patterns_of_rDNA_chromatin_organization_at_NOR_1_sites_/1129893", "title"=>"Different patterns of rDNA chromatin organization at NOR-1 sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624226"], "description"=>"<p>A. Immunofluorescence using an antibody against 5-mC coupled with FISH using the 18S rDNA probe revealed the presence of 5-mC in both 45S rDNA loci. B. Co-localization analysis of 5-mC and FISH signals showed stronger co-localization in minor rDNA sites (NOR-2) when compared to major rDNA sites (NOR-1); N = 26. Number of asterisks indicates p<0.01; error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Letter “n” marks the nucleoli. Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "dna", "methylation", "nor-1", "nor-2"], "article_id"=>1129878, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Level_of_DNA_methylation_in_NOR_1_and_NOR_2_of_Q_robur_/1129878", "title"=>"Level of DNA methylation in NOR-1 and NOR-2 of <i>Q.robur</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624223"], "description"=>"<p>A. Major 45S rDNA sites (NOR-1, arrowheads) are associated with the nucleolus while minor 45S rDNA sites (NOR-2, arrows) are positioned at the nuclear periphery. Statistical analysis of measured distances from the nucleolus (B, N = 220) or the nuclear periphery (C, N = 240) reveals differences between the two rDNA loci. Number of asterisks indicates p<0.0001; error bars represent the standard error of the mean. Letter «n» marks the nucleoli. Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "nor-1", "nor-2", "interphase", "nucleus"], "article_id"=>1129875, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Position_of_NOR_1_and_NOR_2_in_interphase_nucleus_of_Q_robur_/1129875", "title"=>"Position of NOR-1 and NOR-2 in interphase nucleus of <i>Q.robur</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624239"], "description"=>"<p>Silver stained nuclei before (A) and after treatment with 5-aza-2′-dC (B) show strong silver deposition within the whole area corresponding to a single large nucleolus. A. rDNA knobs of both NOR-1 sites seen at the nucleolar periphery (arrows) show mild silver deposition. B. After treatment with 5-aza-2′-dC rDNA chromatin of the knob was decondensed, extending from the NOR-bearing chromosome to the nucleolus which was completely stained with silver (arrowhead). Scale bar is 5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "staining", "nucleolus", "cycling", "cells"], "article_id"=>1129892, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Silver_staining_of_chromosomes_and_nucleolus_in_root_tip_cycling_cells_of_Q_robur_/1129892", "title"=>"Silver staining of chromosomes and nucleolus in root tip cycling cells of <i>Q. robur.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624222"], "description"=>"<p>Hybridization area was detected with DAB. Labeled condensed chromatin lies outside or close to the nucleolus (A and B, black arrows), protruding into the nucleolus (B, black arrow) and inside the nucleolus near the nucleolar border (C, black arrows). Diffuse hybridization signal that corresponds to completely decondensed DNA is seen inside the nucleolus (A, B, C, white arrows). Unlabeled chromatin corresponding to the NOR-bearing chromosome can be seen near the nucleolus (B, black arrowhead) and protruding into it (A, black arrowhead). Letter «n» marks the nucleolus. Scale bar is 2.5 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "micrographs", "hybridization", "biotin", "labeled", "18s", "rdna", "probe", "sections", "meristematic"], "article_id"=>1129874, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>107, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electron_micrographs_of_in_situ_hybridization_with_biotin_labeled_18S_rDNA_probe_on_sections_through_root_tip_meristematic_tissue_of_Q_robur_/1129874", "title"=>"Electron micrographs of <i>in situ</i> hybridization with biotin labeled 18S rDNA probe on sections through root tip meristematic tissue of <i>Q. robur</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1624235"], "description"=>"<p>RT-PCR analysis detected an increased level of 18S rRNA transcripts after treatment of root tips with 5-aza-2′-dC. C – control, T – treatment with 5-aza-2′-dC. OD/AU is optical density (in arbitrary units) of RT-PCR product peaks after electrophoresis in agarose gel and staining with ethidium bromide. The 18S rRNA (1830 bp band) transcription increased more than twofold after treatment with 5-aza-2′-dC, while the transcription level of the Actin3 gene (655 bp, used as control) remained essentially at the same level.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology", "Cellular types", "Plant cells", "Meristematic cells", "Chromosome biology", "chromatin", "euchromatin", "heterochromatin", "chromosomes", "Molecular cell biology", "Plant cell biology", "genetics", "molecular biology", "Plant science", "18s", "rrna"], "article_id"=>1129887, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vedrana Vičić Bočkor", "Darko Barišić", "Tomislav Horvat", "Željka Maglica", "Aleksandar Vojta", "Vlatka Zoldoš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103954.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RT_PCR_analysis_of_18S_rRNA_transcription_/1129887", "title"=>"RT-PCR analysis of 18S rRNA transcription.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-05 06:43:59"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Genetics", "average_usage"=>[306, 482]}]}
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