Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Progesterone in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV-2 Microglia
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Beilei", "last_name"=>"Lei", "scopus_author_id"=>"55831321500"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Mace", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197049330"}, {"first_name"=>"Hana N.", "last_name"=>"Dawson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005652478"}, {"first_name"=>"David S.", "last_name"=>"Warner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201613918"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel T.", "last_name"=>"Laskowitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"20534698700"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael L.", "last_name"=>"James", "scopus_author_id"=>"15727594900"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905220400", "sgr"=>"84905220400", "pui"=>"373675712", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"25080336", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0103969"}, "id"=>"d272307e-d07e-322d-82d5-69d4e9d52dfa", "abstract"=>"Female sex is associated with improved outcome in experimental brain injury models, such as traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. This implies female gonadal steroids may be neuroprotective. A mechanism for this may involve modulation of post-injury neuroinflammation. As the resident immunomodulatory cells in central nervous system, microglia are activated during acute brain injury and produce inflammatory mediators which contribute to secondary injury including proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), mediated by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively. We hypothesized that female gonadal steroids reduce microglia mediated neuroinflammation. In this study, the progesterone's effects on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), iNOS, and COX-2 expression were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglia. Further, investigation included nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. LPS (30 ng/ml) upregulated TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 protein expression in BV-2 cells. Progesterone pretreatment attenuated LPS-stimulated TNF-α, iNOS, and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent fashion. Progesterone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation by decreasing inhibitory κBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Progesterone decreased LPS-mediated phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular regulated kinase MAPKs. These progesterone effects were inhibited by its antagonist mifepristone. In conclusion, progesterone exhibits pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia by down-regulating proinflammatory mediators corresponding to suppression of NF-κB and MAPK activation. This suggests progesterone may be used as a potential neurotherapeutic to treat inflammatory components of acute brain injury.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/antiinflammatory-effects-progesterone-lipopolysaccharidestimulated-bv2-microglia", "reader_count"=>45, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Neuroscience"=>9, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>9}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84905220400"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84905220400?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84905220400&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84905220400&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84905220400", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84905220400", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84905220400", "dc:title"=>"Anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglia", "dc:creator"=>"Lei B.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"7", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-07-31", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"31 July 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0103969", "citedby-count"=>"54", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Duke University Medical Center", "affiliation-city"=>"Durham", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"25080336", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e103969", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0103969", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"83", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"162"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"26", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"88"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"28", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"96"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"68"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"63"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"32"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"104"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1617315"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were treated in serum-free DMEM. (A) Representative immunoblots demonstrate time course changes for p-p65, p-IκBα, IκBα and GAPDH. (B) Progesterone pretreatment for 1 h dose-dependently decreased LPS (30 ng/ml, 4 h)-stimulated p65 and IκBα phosphorylation. P8, P7 and P6: progesterone at 10<sup>−8</sup>, 10<sup>−7</sup> and 10<sup>−6</sup> M. (C, D, E) Progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone suppressed progesterone’s effect on p65 and IκBα phosphorylation. *<i>P</i><0.05 compared to LPS group, n = 3. (F) LPS induced translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. (G, H) Mifepristone reversed progesterone’s inhibition effect of p65 translocation by LPS for 1 hour. P7L: progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M9PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−9</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M8PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−8</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M7PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "Neurochemicals", "Nitric oxide", "Neuroendocrinology", "neuromodulation", "cell biology", "Cell physiology", "Cell activation", "Cellular types", "Animal cells", "Glial cells", "Microglial cells", "Signal transduction", "cell signaling", "Signaling cascades", "MAPK signaling cascades", "Immunological signaling", "Molecular cell biology", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "Innate immune system", "Neuroimmunology", "neuroscience", "Molecular neuroscience", "neurology", "cerebral ischemia", "Pain management", "analgesics", "COX-2 inhibitors", "Vascular medicine", "stroke", "suppressed", "lps-induced"], "article_id"=>1123744, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Beilei Lei", "Brian Mace", "Hana N. Dawson", "David S. Warner", "Daniel T. Laskowitz", "Michael L. James"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103969.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progesterone_suppressed_LPS_induced_NF_954_B_activation_/1123744", "title"=>"Progesterone suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-31 03:20:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1617301"], "description"=>"<p>Immunofluorescence staining detected the distribution of progesterone receptors in both nucleus and cytoplasm by some colocalization of receptors (PR, red) with nuclei (DAPI, blue).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "Neurochemicals", "Nitric oxide", "Neuroendocrinology", "neuromodulation", "cell biology", "Cell physiology", "Cell activation", "Cellular types", "Animal cells", "Glial cells", "Microglial cells", "Signal transduction", "cell signaling", "Signaling cascades", "MAPK signaling cascades", "Immunological signaling", "Molecular cell biology", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "Innate immune system", "Neuroimmunology", "neuroscience", "Molecular neuroscience", "neurology", "cerebral ischemia", "Pain management", "analgesics", "COX-2 inhibitors", "Vascular medicine", "stroke", "progesterone", "receptors", "bv-2"], "article_id"=>1123730, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Beilei Lei", "Brian Mace", "Hana N. Dawson", "David S. Warner", "Daniel T. Laskowitz", "Michael L. James"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103969.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Localization_of_progesterone_receptors_in_BV_2_microglia_/1123730", "title"=>"Localization of progesterone receptors in BV-2 microglia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-31 03:20:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1617320"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were treated in serum-free DMEM. (A) Representative immunoblots demonstrate time course changes for p38, JNK and ERK MAPKs phosphorylation with LPS (30 ng/ml) stimulation. (B) Progesterone Pretreatment for 1 h dose-dependently decreased LPS (30 ng/ml, 4 h)-induced p38, JNK and ERK phosphorylation. P8, P7 and P6: progesterone at 10<sup>−8</sup>, 10<sup>−7</sup> and 10<sup>−6</sup> M. (C, D) Progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone reversed progesterone’s effect on MAPK phosphorylation. *<i>P</i><0.05 compared to LPS group, n = 3. P7L: progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M9PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−9</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M8PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−8</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M7PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "Neurochemicals", "Nitric oxide", "Neuroendocrinology", "neuromodulation", "cell biology", "Cell physiology", "Cell activation", "Cellular types", "Animal cells", "Glial cells", "Microglial cells", "Signal transduction", "cell signaling", "Signaling cascades", "MAPK signaling cascades", "Immunological signaling", "Molecular cell biology", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "Innate immune system", "Neuroimmunology", "neuroscience", "Molecular neuroscience", "neurology", "cerebral ischemia", "Pain management", "analgesics", "COX-2 inhibitors", "Vascular medicine", "stroke", "reduced", "lps-mediated", "phosphorylation", "jnk", "erk"], "article_id"=>1123750, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Beilei Lei", "Brian Mace", "Hana N. Dawson", "David S. Warner", "Daniel T. Laskowitz", "Michael L. James"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103969.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progesterone_reduced_LPS_mediated_phosphorylation_of_P38_JNK_and_ERK_MAPKs_/1123750", "title"=>"Progesterone reduced LPS-mediated phosphorylation of P38, JNK and ERK MAPKs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-31 03:20:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1617321"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were treated in serum-free DMEM. Progesterone at 10<sup>−7</sup> M was given 5, 30 or 60 min after LPS (30 ng/ml) addition. N = 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "Neurochemicals", "Nitric oxide", "Neuroendocrinology", "neuromodulation", "cell biology", "Cell physiology", "Cell activation", "Cellular types", "Animal cells", "Glial cells", "Microglial cells", "Signal transduction", "cell signaling", "Signaling cascades", "MAPK signaling cascades", "Immunological signaling", "Molecular cell biology", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "Innate immune system", "Neuroimmunology", "neuroscience", "Molecular neuroscience", "neurology", "cerebral ischemia", "Pain management", "analgesics", "COX-2 inhibitors", "Vascular medicine", "stroke", "progesterone", "did", "lps-induced", "inflammation", "bv-2"], "article_id"=>1123751, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Beilei Lei", "Brian Mace", "Hana N. Dawson", "David S. Warner", "Daniel T. Laskowitz", "Michael L. James"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103969.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Post_treatment_progesterone_did_not_affect_LPS_induced_inflammation_in_BV_2_cells_/1123751", "title"=>"Post-treatment progesterone did not affect LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-31 03:20:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1617307"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were treated in serum-free DMEM. (A) Pretreatment of progesterone for 1 h dose-dependently suppressed LPS (30 ng/ml, 4 h)-mediated TNF-α secretion in cell supernants. *<i>P</i><0.05 compared with LPS group, n = 7. P8, P7 and P6: progesterone at 10<sup>−8</sup>, 10<sup>−7</sup> and 10<sup>−6</sup> M. (B) The representative immunoblot demonstrated time course changes for transmembrane TNF-α (tmTNFα) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, a loading control) with LPS (30 ng/ml) stimulation from 0 to 24 h. (C) Pretreatment of progesterone for 1 h dose-dependently decreased LPS (30 ng/ml, 4 h)-stimulated tmTNF-α expression. The representative immunoblot (D) and summary of band densitometric quantifications (E) showed that progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone reversed progesterone’s effect on tmTNF-α expression induced by 4 h LPS stimulation. *<i>P</i><0.05 compared to LPS group, n = 3. P7L: progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M9PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−9</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M8PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−8</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M7PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "Neurochemicals", "Nitric oxide", "Neuroendocrinology", "neuromodulation", "cell biology", "Cell physiology", "Cell activation", "Cellular types", "Animal cells", "Glial cells", "Microglial cells", "Signal transduction", "cell signaling", "Signaling cascades", "MAPK signaling cascades", "Immunological signaling", "Molecular cell biology", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "Innate immune system", "Neuroimmunology", "neuroscience", "Molecular neuroscience", "neurology", "cerebral ischemia", "Pain management", "analgesics", "COX-2 inhibitors", "Vascular medicine", "stroke", "attenuated", "lps-stimulated"], "article_id"=>1123736, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Beilei Lei", "Brian Mace", "Hana N. Dawson", "David S. Warner", "Daniel T. Laskowitz", "Michael L. James"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103969.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progesterone_attenuated_LPS_stimulated_TNF_945_production_/1123736", "title"=>"Progesterone attenuated LPS-stimulated TNF-α production.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-31 03:20:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1617310"], "description"=>"<p>Cells were treated in serum-free DMEM. (A) Representative immunoblots demonstrate time course changes for iNOS, COX-2 and GAPDH with LPS (30 ng/ml) stimulation. (B) Pretreatment of progesterone for 1 h dose-dependently decreased LPS (30 ng/ml, 4 h)-stimulated iNOS and COX-2 expression. P8, P7 and P6: progesterone at 10<sup>−8</sup>, 10<sup>−7</sup> and 10<sup>−6</sup> M. (C, D, E) Progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone suppressed progesterone’s effect on LPS-induced iNOS and COX 2 expression for 20 h. *<i>P</i><0.05 compared to LPS group, n = 3. P7L: progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M9PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−9</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M8PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−8</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS; M7PL: mifepristone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+progesterone 10<sup>−7</sup> M+LPS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochemistry", "Neurochemistry", "Neurochemicals", "Nitric oxide", "Neuroendocrinology", "neuromodulation", "cell biology", "Cell physiology", "Cell activation", "Cellular types", "Animal cells", "Glial cells", "Microglial cells", "Signal transduction", "cell signaling", "Signaling cascades", "MAPK signaling cascades", "Immunological signaling", "Molecular cell biology", "developmental biology", "Molecular development", "cytokines", "immunology", "Immune system", "Innate immune system", "Neuroimmunology", "neuroscience", "Molecular neuroscience", "neurology", "cerebral ischemia", "Pain management", "analgesics", "COX-2 inhibitors", "Vascular medicine", "stroke", "lps-induced", "inos", "cox-2"], "article_id"=>1123740, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Beilei Lei", "Brian Mace", "Hana N. Dawson", "David S. Warner", "Daniel T. Laskowitz", "Michael L. James"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103969.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progesterone_decreased_LPS_induced_iNOS_and_COX_2_expression_/1123740", "title"=>"Progesterone decreased LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-07-31 03:20:41"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"15", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"57", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"22", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"37", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"62", "full-text"=>"69", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"20", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"35", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"74", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"66", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"76", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"75", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"41", "full-text"=>"72", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"51", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Immunology", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Neurology", "average_usage"=>[285]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts