Seafood Substitutions Obscure Patterns of Mercury Contamination in Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) or “Chilean Sea Bass”
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{"title"=>"Seafood substitutions obscure patterns of mercury contamination in patagonian toothfish (dissostichus eleginoides) or \"Chilean Sea Bass\"", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Peter B.", "last_name"=>"Marko", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004491942"}, {"first_name"=>"Holly A.", "last_name"=>"Nance", "scopus_author_id"=>"18038379100"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Van Den Hurk", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603795552"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905460218", "sgr"=>"84905460218", "pui"=>"373700753", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"25093736", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0104140"}, "id"=>"7e958143-f520-3d54-8f23-232ea5b8ec14", "abstract"=>"Seafood mislabeling distorts the true abundance of fish in the sea, defrauds consumers, and can also cause unwanted exposure to harmful pollutants. By combining genetic data with analyses of total mercury content, we have investigated how species substitutions and fishery-stock substitutions obscure mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), also known as \"Chilean sea bass\". Patagonian toothfish show wide variation in mercury concentrations such that consumers may be exposed to either acceptable or unacceptable levels of mercury depending on the geographic origins of the fish and the allowable limits of different countries. Most notably, stocks of Patagonian toothfish in Chile accumulate significantly more mercury than stocks closer to the South Pole, including the South Georgia/Shag Rocks stock, a fishery certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as sustainably fished. Consistent with the documented geography of mercury contamination, our analysis showed that, on average, retail fish labeled as MSC-certified Patagonian toothfish had only half the mercury of uncertified fish. However, consideration of genetic data that were informative about seafood substitutions revealed a complex pattern of contamination hidden from consumers: species substitutions artificially inflated the expected difference in mercury levels between MSC-certified and uncertified fish whereas fishery stock substitutions artificially reduced the expected difference in mercury content between MSC-certified and uncertified fish that were actually D. eleginoides. Among MSC-certified fish that were actually D. eleginoides, several with exogenous mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., not known from the certified fishery) had mercury concentrations on par with uncertified fish from Chile. Overall, our analysis of mercury was consistent with inferences from the genetic data about the geographic origins of the fish, demonstrated the potential negative impact of seafood mislabeling on unwanted mercury exposure for consumers, and showed that fishery-stock substitutions may expose consumers to significantly greater mercury concentrations in retail-acquired fish than species substitutions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/seafood-substitutions-obscure-patterns-mercury-contamination-patagonian-toothfish-dissostichus-elegi", "reader_count"=>37, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>13}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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