Decreasing Abundance, Increasing Diversity and Changing Structure of the Wild Bee Community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) along an Urbanization Gradient
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{"title"=>"Decreasing abundance, increasing diversity and changing structure of the wild bee community (hymenoptera: anthophila) along an urbanization gradient", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Fortel", "scopus_author_id"=>"56321420300"}, {"first_name"=>"Mickaël", "last_name"=>"Henry", "scopus_author_id"=>"16642785300"}, {"first_name"=>"Laurent", "last_name"=>"Guilbaud", "scopus_author_id"=>"36960602300"}, {"first_name"=>"Anne Laure", "last_name"=>"Guirao", "scopus_author_id"=>"56321549300"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Kuhlmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"36788787400"}, {"first_name"=>"Hugues", "last_name"=>"Mouret", "scopus_author_id"=>"56180846900"}, {"first_name"=>"Orianne", "last_name"=>"Rollin", "scopus_author_id"=>"55142244000"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernard E.", "last_name"=>"Vaissière", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603354756"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25118722", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0104679", "sgr"=>"84905911063", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84905911063", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373752600"}, "id"=>"4b28426b-04d5-3779-9a36-e9195d2e4e6d", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Wild bees are important pollinators that have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. Habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization are reported as part of the main causes of this decline. Urbanization involves dramatic changes of the landscape, increasing the proportion of impervious surface while decreasing that of green areas. Few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on bee communities. We assessed changes in the abundance, species richness, and composition of wild bee community along an urbanization gradient. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over two years and on a monthly basis, bees were sampled with colored pan traps and insect nets at 24 sites located along an urbanization gradient. Landscape structure within three different radii was measured at each study site. We captured 291 wild bee species. The abundance of wild bees was negatively correlated with the proportion of impervious surface, while species richness reached a maximum at an intermediate (50%) proportion of impervious surface. The structure of the community changed along the urbanization gradient with more parasitic species in sites with an intermediate proportion of impervious surface. There were also greater numbers of cavity-nesting species and long-tongued species in sites with intermediate or higher proportion of impervious surface. However, urbanization had no effect on the occurrence of species depending on their social behavior or body size. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found nearly a third of the wild bee fauna known from France in our study sites. Indeed, urban areas supported a diverse bee community, but sites with an intermediate level of urbanization were the most speciose ones, including greater proportion of parasitic species. The presence of a diverse array of bee species even in the most urbanized area makes these pollinators worthy of being a flagship group to raise the awareness of urban citizens about biodiversity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/decreasing-abundance-increasing-diversity-changing-structure-wild-bee-community-hymenoptera-anthophi", "reader_count"=>264, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>53, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>61, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>46, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>11, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>53, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>61, "Other"=>11, "Student > Bachelor"=>46, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>18, "Environmental Science"=>74, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>158, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>158}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>18}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>74}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United States"=>5, "Brazil"=>2, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>5, "Switzerland"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>19}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633799"], "description"=>"<p>A. Nesting behavior (filled circles and full line  =  cavity-nesting species, open circles and dashed line  =  soil-nesting species); B. Parasitic or host behavior (filled circles and full line  =  parasitic species, open circles and dashed line  =  host species) species; C. Tongue length (filled circles and full line  =  short-tongued species, open circles and dashed line  =  long-tongued species).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization gradient", "proportion", "Wild Bee Community", "Species richness", "bee species", "Urbanization Gradient BackgroundWild bees", "bee community", "site", "surface"], "article_id"=>1137517, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Laura Fortel", "Mickaël Henry", "Laurent Guilbaud", "Anne Laure Guirao", "Michael Kuhlmann", "Hugues Mouret", "Orianne Rollin", "Bernard E. Vaissière"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_the_proportion_of_impervious_surface_within_500_m_on_species_occurrence_based_upon_functional_traits_/1137517", "title"=>"Effect of the proportion of impervious surface within 500 m on species occurrence based upon functional traits.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-13 03:21:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633798"], "description"=>"<p>A. Abundance of bees (filled circles = 2011, open circles = 2012); B. Species richness of bees (filled circles and full line = 2011, open circles and dashed line = 2012). Model for species richness  =  Impervious surface (Year) + Impervious surface<sup>2</sup> (Year).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization gradient", "proportion", "Wild Bee Community", "Species richness", "bee species", "Urbanization Gradient BackgroundWild bees", "bee community", "site", "surface"], "article_id"=>1137516, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Laura Fortel", "Mickaël Henry", "Laurent Guilbaud", "Anne Laure Guirao", "Michael Kuhlmann", "Hugues Mouret", "Orianne Rollin", "Bernard E. Vaissière"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_impervious_surface_percentage_within_500_m_on_the_abundance_and_species_richness_of_bees_/1137516", "title"=>"Effect of impervious surface percentage within 500 m on the abundance and species richness of bees.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-13 03:21:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633803", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633804", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633805", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633806"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Wild bees are important pollinators that have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. Habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization are reported as part of the main causes of this decline. Urbanization involves dramatic changes of the landscape, increasing the proportion of impervious surface while decreasing that of green areas. Few studies have investigated the effects of urbanization on bee communities. We assessed changes in the abundance, species richness, and composition of wild bee community along an urbanization gradient.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>Over two years and on a monthly basis, bees were sampled with colored pan traps and insect nets at 24 sites located along an urbanization gradient. Landscape structure within three different radii was measured at each study site. We captured 291 wild bee species. The abundance of wild bees was negatively correlated with the proportion of impervious surface, while species richness reached a maximum at an intermediate (50%) proportion of impervious surface. The structure of the community changed along the urbanization gradient with more parasitic species in sites with an intermediate proportion of impervious surface. There were also greater numbers of cavity-nesting species and long-tongued species in sites with intermediate or higher proportion of impervious surface. However, urbanization had no effect on the occurrence of species depending on their social behavior or body size.</p><p>Conclusions/Significance</p><p>We found nearly a third of the wild bee fauna known from France in our study sites. Indeed, urban areas supported a diverse bee community, but sites with an intermediate level of urbanization were the most speciose ones, including greater proportion of parasitic species. The presence of a diverse array of bee species even in the most urbanized area makes these pollinators worthy of being a flagship group to raise the awareness of urban citizens about biodiversity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization gradient", "proportion", "Wild Bee Community", "Species richness", "bee species", "Urbanization Gradient BackgroundWild bees", "bee community", "site", "surface"], "article_id"=>1137521, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Laura Fortel", "Mickaël Henry", "Laurent Guilbaud", "Anne Laure Guirao", "Michael Kuhlmann", "Hugues Mouret", "Orianne Rollin", "Bernard E. Vaissière"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decreasing_Abundance_Increasing_Diversity_and_Changing_Structure_of_the_Wild_Bee_Community_Hymenoptera_Anthophila_along_an_Urbanization_Gradient_/1137521", "title"=>"Decreasing Abundance, Increasing Diversity and Changing Structure of the Wild Bee Community (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) along an Urbanization Gradient", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-08-13 03:21:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633801"], "description"=>"<p>Results of generalized linear models with abundance or species richness as dependent variables and landscape variables as independent variables. The effect of independent variables was nested in the year to account for interannual.</p><p>*AIC = Akaike Information Criterion.</p><p>P-value significant after the Bonferroni correction (i.e. <i>p</i>×3) has been applied are written in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization gradient", "proportion", "Wild Bee Community", "Species richness", "bee species", "Urbanization Gradient BackgroundWild bees", "bee community", "site", "surface"], "article_id"=>1137519, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Laura Fortel", "Mickaël Henry", "Laurent Guilbaud", "Anne Laure Guirao", "Michael Kuhlmann", "Hugues Mouret", "Orianne Rollin", "Bernard E. Vaissière"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalized_linear_models_for_bee_abundance_and_species_richness_depending_on_landscape_variables_/1137519", "title"=>"Generalized linear models for bee abundance and species richness depending on landscape variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-13 03:21:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633802"], "description"=>"<p>*Sobs = observed species richness.</p><p>**SD = standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization gradient", "proportion", "Wild Bee Community", "Species richness", "bee species", "Urbanization Gradient BackgroundWild bees", "bee community", "site", "surface"], "article_id"=>1137520, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Laura Fortel", "Mickaël Henry", "Laurent Guilbaud", "Anne Laure Guirao", "Michael Kuhlmann", "Hugues Mouret", "Orianne Rollin", "Bernard E. Vaissière"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_and_estimated_species_richness_/1137520", "title"=>"Observed and estimated species richness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-13 03:21:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633800"], "description"=>"<p>Results of generalized linear models with the occurrence frequency of bee species as dependent variables and landscape variables in interaction with functional traits as independent variables. The effect of independent variables was nested in the year to account for interannual. The effect of quadratic term of impervious surface proportion (Impervioussurface<sup>2</sup>) was higher on cavity-nesting than on soil-nesting bee species, and on non-parasitic than on parasitic bees species. The effect of impervious surface proportion was higher for long-tongued than for short-tongued species.</p><p>*NS = non significant.</p><p>P-value significant after the Bonferroni correction has been applied (i.e. <i>p×5</i>) are written in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization gradient", "proportion", "Wild Bee Community", "Species richness", "bee species", "Urbanization Gradient BackgroundWild bees", "bee community", "site", "surface"], "article_id"=>1137518, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Laura Fortel", "Mickaël Henry", "Laurent Guilbaud", "Anne Laure Guirao", "Michael Kuhlmann", "Hugues Mouret", "Orianne Rollin", "Bernard E. Vaissière"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Generalized_linear_models_for_the_occurrence_frequency_of_bee_species_depending_on_functional_traits_and_landscape_variables_within_500_m_/1137518", "title"=>"Generalized linear models for the occurrence frequency of bee species depending on functional traits and landscape variables within 500 m.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-13 03:21:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633797"], "description"=>"<p>Mean species accumulation curve for pooled data from 2011 and 2012 (1000 randomizations).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization gradient", "proportion", "Wild Bee Community", "Species richness", "bee species", "Urbanization Gradient BackgroundWild bees", "bee community", "site", "surface"], "article_id"=>1137515, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Laura Fortel", "Mickaël Henry", "Laurent Guilbaud", "Anne Laure Guirao", "Michael Kuhlmann", "Hugues Mouret", "Orianne Rollin", "Bernard E. Vaissière"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>105, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_species_accumulation_curve_for_pooled_data_from_2011_and_2012_1000_randomizations_/1137515", "title"=>"Mean species accumulation curve for pooled data from 2011 and 2012 (1000 randomizations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-13 03:21:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1633796"], "description"=>"<p>Base map colors represent: impervious surface (grey), agricultural landscape (yellow), semi-natural habitat (green) or water (blue).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urbanization gradient", "proportion", "Wild Bee Community", "Species richness", "bee species", "Urbanization Gradient BackgroundWild bees", "bee community", "site", "surface"], "article_id"=>1137514, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Laura Fortel", "Mickaël Henry", "Laurent Guilbaud", "Anne Laure Guirao", "Michael Kuhlmann", "Hugues Mouret", "Orianne Rollin", "Bernard E. Vaissière"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104679.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_the_24_sites_along_the_urbanization_gradient_around_Lyon_France_/1137514", "title"=>"Distribution of the 24 sites along the urbanization gradient around Lyon, France.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-13 03:21:11"}

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Relative Metric

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